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Use dimmer switches on household lights or use candles. At night, use dimmer switches in your home to reduce unnecessary lighting, or try using candles if you want to reduce your light pollution even further, and to encourage your own body’s winding down for the night. You might find that you like the effects, and appreciate the increased restful sleep of your entire family! Also, if possible, consider eliminating your use of electronics a couple of hours before you go to bed to eliminate the blue light that such devices often emanate that may negatively impact your body’s own melatonin production. Energy conservation advocates contend that light pollution must be addressed by changing the habits of society, so that lighting is used more efficiently, with less waste and less creation of unwanted or unneeded illumination.[citation needed] Several industry groups also recognize light pollution as an important issue. For example, the Institution of Lighting Engineers in the United Kingdom provides its members with information about light pollution, the problems it causes, and how to reduce its impact.[10] Although, recent research[11] point that the energy efficiency is not enough to reduce the light pollution because of the rebound effect. A typical kerosene lamp is made by taking an empty bottle or tin can, putting a wick in the middle, filling it with fuel and lighting. Using kerosene for lighting is extremely inefficient, dangerous and expensive, and it has extensive health and environmental drawbacks. The furthest objects visible, quasars, have been detected 13 billion light years away.[1] After allowing for the metric expansion of space,[2] this puts the lower limit of the age of the universe at near 13 billion years.[3] The methods of measuring distances to the billions of light years are rather complicated, but there are direct measurements well beyond the limits of YEC, using only parallax. There are the measurements of the supernova SN1987A at about 168,000 light years, and the Gaia space mission should obtain many distances of objects up to about 30,000 light years.[4] But not all colors of light have the same effect. Blue wavelengths—which are beneficial during daylight hours because they boost attention, reaction times, and mood—seem to be the most disruptive at night. And the proliferation of electronics with screens, as well as energy-efficient lighting, is increasing our exposure to blue wavelengths, especially after sundown. Light pollution poses a serious threat in particular to nocturnal wildlife, having negative impacts on plant and animal physiology. It can confuse animal navigation, alter competitive interactions, change predator-prey relations, and cause physiological harm.[53] The rhythm of life is orchestrated by the natural diurnal patterns of light and dark, so disruption to these patterns impacts the ecological dynamics.[54] 8. Gallaway et al. (2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) utilize the threshold criteria established by Cinzano et al. (2001 Cinzano, P., Falchi, F., & Elvidge, C. D. (2001). The first world Atlas of the artificial night sky brightness. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 328, 689–707.10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04882.x[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) for considering an area ‘polluted’ by light. These criteria ‘consider the night sky polluted when the artificial brightness of the sky is greater than 10% of the natural sky brightness above 45° of elevation’ (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar], p. 660). Moving or removing street lights Requests to have a street light moved or removed must be put in writing. If you would like to request moving or removing a street light, please email highwaylightingteam@somerset.gov.uk or write to us at the address below.  Please log in or use quick access to continue. If you have more than one account with us, use the account information associated with the area light that is experiencing problems. Several different types of light sources exist, each having different properties that affect their appropriateness for certain tasks, particularly efficiency and spectral power distribution. It is often the case that inappropriate light sources have been selected for a task, either due to ignorance or because more sophisticated light sources were unavailable at the time of installation. Therefore, badly chosen light sources often contribute unnecessarily to light pollution and energy waste. By re-assessing and changing the light sources used, it is often possible to reduce energy use and pollutive effects while simultaneously greatly improving efficiency and visibility. In addition to turning on the light—known as the International Check Engine Symbol—the computer stores a “trouble code” in its memory that identifies the source of the problem, such as a malfunctioning sensor or a misfiring engine. The code can be read with an electronic scan tool or a diagnostic computer—standard equipment in auto repair shops. There are also a number of relatively inexpensive code readers that are designed for do-it-yourselfers. Determine the frequency of … (GIVEN: 1 m = 109 nm) a. … red visible light (λ = 650 nm) b. … violet visible light (λ = 420 nm) We use more than 8,300 street lights of various types and wattages. What they have in common is that nearly every one has a photo control switch. This tells it to turn on at night and go off during the day. Kyba et al. (2014 Kyba, C., Hänel, A., & Hölker, F. (2014). Redefining efficiency for outdoor lighting. Energy & Environmental Science, 7, 1806–1809.10.1039/C4EE00566J[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) mention the tricky issue of ‘shifting baseline syndrome’. As nights get brighter, people have a new conception of what ‘normal’ levels of light are, and base their evaluations of acceptable levels of brightness on this. A focus on needs could help to overcome shifting baselines. But, such an approach risks omitting the preferences of local stakeholders, and as such may create technocratic and paternalistic policies. This may contribute to downstream value-level conflicts when regulations are enacted. For example, safety is a central facet of nighttime lighting and an important value intertwined with urban nightscapes. While the correlation between increased lighting and increased safety is contentious, research suggests that lighting influences feelings and perceptions of safety (King, 2010 King, C. (2010). Field surveys of the effect of lamp spectrum on the perception of safety and comfort and night. Lighting Research & Technology, 42, 313–329.[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]), and that feelings of fear increase at night (Li et al., 2015 Li, Y., Ma, W., Kang, Q., Qiao, L., Tang, D., Qiu, J., … Li, H. (2015). Night or darkness, which intensifies the feeling of fear? International Journal of Psychophysiology, 97, 46–57.10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.04.021[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Such findings represent a challenge for needs-based nighttime lighting efforts. Attention to the preferences of local stakeholders becomes critical to the creation of regulations that will be supported and successful. The frame creation model discussed above (Dorst, 2015 Dorst, K. (2015). Frame innovation: Create new thinking by design. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar]) is but one approach that incorporates the values and desires of stakeholders; a variety of other participatory or value-focused design strategies could also be effectively utilized to address conflicts of this nature. The Swiss Agency for Energy Efficiency (SAFE) uses a concept that promises to be of great use in the diagnosis and design of road lighting, “consommation électrique spécifique (CES)”, which can be translated into English as “specific electric power consumption (SEC)”.[99] Thus, based on observed lighting levels in a wide range of Swiss towns, SAFE has defined target values for electric power consumption per metre for roads of various categories. Thus, SAFE currently recommends an SEC of 2 to 3 watts per meter for roads of less than 10 metre width (4 to 6 watts per metre for wider roads). Such a measure provides an easily applicable environmental protection constraint on conventional “norms”, which usually are based on the recommendations of lighting manufacturing interests, who may not take into account environmental criteria. In view of ongoing progress in lighting technology, target SEC values will need to be periodically revised downwards. Maxman Masculin Active deseo sterydy eracto Penigen 500 Eron Plus Penigen 500 Atlant Gel Atlant Gel