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Street light switched off for energy saving With this definition and sub-categorization, the use of light pollution as a framework for evaluating artificial nighttime lighting begins to come into focus. The undesired outputs of artificial nighttime lighting—be it any of the four broad types listed above—can then be considered in terms of effects. The consequences of light pollution are far reaching, and supporting research is often still at an early stage. However, the effects can likewise be subdivided into five broad categories: energy usage, ecology, health, safety, and the night sky. The past few decades have seen the first large-scale investigations of energy usage by artificial nighttime lighting, as well as its connection to economic costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The International Dark-Sky Association estimates that 22% of all energy in the USA is used for lighting, and of that around 8% is used for outdoor nighttime lighting (IDA, 2014 IDA. (2014). International Dark-Sky Association. International Dark-Sky Association. Retrieved 15 January, 2015, from https://darksky.org/ [Google Scholar]). Another recent study concluded that this number is closer to 6% (Gallaway, Olsen, & Mitchell, 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Such studies often focus not just on the amount of energy used for lighting, but specifically the amount of wasted light. A consistent estimate is that approximately 30% of outdoor lighting in the United States is wasted (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]; Henderson, 2010 Henderson, D. (2010). Valuing the stars: On the economics of light pollution. Environmental Philosophy, 7, 17–26.10.5840/envirophil2010712[Crossref] [Google Scholar]).77. By wasted, we can assume this percentage of lighting is deemed to fall within one (or more) of the categories listed above (skyglow, glare, light trespass, or clutter).View all notes This translates into roughly 73 million megawatt hours of ‘needlessly generated’ electricty, with an estimated annual cost of US$6.9 billion. Elimating this wasted light, in terms of CO2 reduction, is equivalent to removing 9.5 million cars from the road (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Similar estimates of wasted light in the European Union have predicted that the direct costs amount to €5.2 billion, or 23.5 billion kg of CO2 annually (Morgan-Taylor, 2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). Jason Lisle’s 2010 paper published in the Answers Research Journal (meaning, despite his apparent confidence in its explanatory power and his doctoral education in astrophysics, that he was unwilling to submit to peer review – any ideas as to why?) aims to solve the starlight problem by taking advantage of a quirk of physics–it isn’t certain, after 70 years of discussion, whether a “one way” speed of light can be measured or is a convention. Lisle thus proposes that light traveling towards the Earth does so at an infinite speed while light traveling the other way goes at half the measured speed; which is not original to him. Thus it becomes possible for light to arrive from distant stars in line with the 6000-year chronology of young Earth creationism (and equally well, or perhaps even better, with Bertrand Russell’s deliberately ridiculous five minutes ago hypothesis) even though we still measure the speed of light as a fairly lumbering 299,792,458 m/s. We’re converting many of our street lights to energy-efficient Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology. Read more about our LED street lighting project. Please fill out the form below if you know of a street light that needs to be repaired. Urgent problems with street lights, illuminated signs or bollards are: We aim to fix streetlights within 28 working days. If it can’t be fixed on the first visit, we may need to order extra parts and the repair will be planned as soon as possible. The Check Engine light — more formally known as the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) — is a signal from the car’s engine computer that something is wrong. The car dealer’s service department can diagnose the problem for about $75. But there’s a way to preview what the problem might be. Even more significantly, the word עָשָׂה (‘āśâ; “to do,” “to make”) is used specifically of the creation of the astronomical bodies in Genesis 1:16. The meaning of this verb is broader, semantically speaking, than בָּרָא, and may refer to acts of creative ingenuity by agents other than God. That being said, it is indisputably evident that עָשָׂה is commonly used to refer to the act of fashioning something out of already-existing material (for example, the creation of man in Genesis 1:26; cf. 2:7). Granted, such is not always the intended meaning, even with respect to the astronomical bodies (for example, compare Genesis 1:1 with 2 Kings 19:15; Isaiah 37:16; 66:22; Jeremiah 32:17). However, the use of עָשָׂה in the Day Four creation record apart from any contextual clues to suggest that it must bear the sense of creation out of nothing suggests that there is a distinct possibility that the making of the astronomical bodies was instead a matter of fashioning them from material previously created on Day One. Just as the description of the earth in Genesis 1:2 is of something unfinished that God returned over the next several days to shape and prepare, perhaps the matter that would become the astronomical bodies was created on Day One but was shaped on Day Four, whereupon God brought forth their light to the earth. Such a question may not strike you as entirely novel or revolutionary, as surely such questions are as old as attempts to illuminate our nights. But, the context in which this question is posed—the growing recognition of environmental and health-related problems caused or amplified by nighttime lighting—gives it new meaning. We are now seeking a transition in nighttime lighting strategies toward reducing the amount of illumination. And, it has been acknowledged that traditional approaches have been ineffective to date. Kyba, Hänel, and Hölker (2014 Kyba, C., Hänel, A., & Hölker, F. (2014). Redefining efficiency for outdoor lighting. Energy & Environmental Science, 7, 1806–1809.10.1039/C4EE00566J[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) note that despite improvements to efficiency in lighting technologies, energy usage for outdoor lighting and artificial nighttime brightness continues to increase annually. Thus, a complete conversion to efficient lighting technologies alone (i.e. LEDs) is unlikely to reduce energy consumption or other unwanted consequences; new approaches to nighttime lighting must look beyond the narrow focus of improving efficiency. They summarize this necessary change in perspective by stating that, The City of Winnipeg has adopted the latest Transportation Association of Canada’s Street Lighting Design Guide that stipulates the light levels for the City’s streets. This is the criteria that defines the number of lights and the wattage used to illuminate City streets. The main purpose of street lighting is to “provide an adequate visual environment for road users to safely use the road system during hours of darkness.” In the effort to reduce light pollution, researchers have developed a “Unified System of Photometry,” which is a way to measure how much or what kind of street lighting is needed. The Unified System of Photometry allows light fixtures to be designed to reduce energy use while maintaining or improving perceptions of visibility, safety, and security.[101] There was a need to create a new system of light measurement at night because the biological way in which the eye’s rods and cones process light is different in nighttime conditions versus daytime conditions. Using this new system of photometry, results from recent studies have indicated that replacing traditional, yellowish, high-pressure sodium (HPS) lights with “cool” white light sources, such as induction, fluorescent, ceramic metal halide, or LEDs can actually reduce the amount of electric power used for lighting while maintaining or improving visibility in nighttime conditions.[102] testogen power up premium xtrasize BioBelt Zevs el macho Eron Plus Testogen power up premium Eron Plus

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