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Access to electricity and poverty are closely linked, countries that have the lowest levels of electrification also have the highest levels of poverty. Without adequate electricity and lighting, adults are unable to continue income generating activities into the evening that may lessen the burden of poverty. At the same time, children are unable to study, read or do school work. Rural communities need a reliable and sustainable solution for lighting to give them hope for a brighter future. With electric light, the illumination of our urban nightscapes was effectively realized. But with this realization, a critical shift in perception was occurring underneath the spread of electricity. As new generations were born into a world of abundant electric light, it began losing its mysticism. Electric lighting, once dazzling and even otherworldly, began fading into banality as early as the 1920s (Isenstadt, 2014 Isenstadt, S. (2014). Good night. Places Journal. Retrieved 22 October, 2014, from https://placesjournal.org/article/good-night/[Crossref] [Google Scholar]). By the 1930s, light was no longer considered a spectacle but sank into the background of everyday life (Nye, 1990 Nye, D. E. (1990). Electrifying America: Social meanings of a new technology, 1880–1940. Cambridge: MIT Press. [Google Scholar]). An abundance of light has become the expectation for urban nights in North America and Europe. As a consequence of this shift, lighting infrastructure went (and remains) largely unnoticed. It is only when lighting fails (e.g. power outages) or during unique displays that we notice the technology. The light fixtures in our homes are remarkably effective and may work for years with little attention other than replacing an occasional burned-out light bulb. Sometimes, though, a light fixture that’s been working fine may suddenly develop a problem that requires diagnosis and repair. The correction can be very simple—such as replacing the light bulb or adjusting the light bulb socket—or as complex as replacing the entire light fixture or a wall switch. Street lights district councils are responsible for District councils are responsible for street lights on unadopted highways on district council owned land, for example, car parks, parks, and amenity areas. An unadopted highway is a street which is not maintained by the local highway authority at public expense. If the street light you want to report is one of these please contact your local district council. 8. Gallaway et al. (2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) utilize the threshold criteria established by Cinzano et al. (2001 Cinzano, P., Falchi, F., & Elvidge, C. D. (2001). The first world Atlas of the artificial night sky brightness. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 328, 689–707.10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04882.x[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) for considering an area ‘polluted’ by light. These criteria ‘consider the night sky polluted when the artificial brightness of the sky is greater than 10% of the natural sky brightness above 45° of elevation’ (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar], p. 660). Kerosene lamps produce carbon dioxide (CO2). It is estimated that each kerosene lantern with a weekly fuel consumption of one litre of kerosene produces 0.1 tonnes of CO2 each year. In general, fuel-based lighting in the developing world is a source of 244 million tons of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere each year. This amounts to 58% of the CO2 emissions from residential electric lighting. Solution number seven invokes common time conventions in astronomy (Newton 2001; Lisle 2010). In 1987, astronomers observed a supernova in a small, nearby galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), so we say that the supernova happened in 1987 (the name, “SN 1987A,” says as much). However, this was when we first saw the light from the supernova, but since the Large Magellanic Cloud is roughly 170,000 lt-yr away, we can say that the supernova actually happened 170,000 years ago. Thus, astronomers have two time conventions as to when something happened, when it actually happened, and when it is observable on earth. In the time convention solution, God made objects in the universe on Day Four, but the one-way infinite speed of light caused their light to reach earth instantly. It is amazing to me that this very interesting solution has not received more attention, particularly of the negative type. Humphreys, D. R. 1994. Starlight and time. Green Forest, Arkansas: Master Books. Deciphering the Code Do-it-yourselfers can buy inexpensive code readers that connect to this standardized onboard diagnostics (OBD) port and search for the code’s meaning on Web sites such as Engine Light Help. The Check Engine light can even be turned off by some code readers, even though this action alone does not actually repair the underlying problem. In many such cases the light will simply come back on later. Reducing light pollution implies many things, such as reducing sky glow, reducing glare, reducing light trespass, and reducing clutter. The method for best reducing light pollution, therefore, depends on exactly what the problem is in any given instance. Possible solutions include: However, there are two important points that we ought to consider. First, astronomers think that a few faint objects visible to the naked eye are much farther away than a few thousand light years. For instance, M31, the Andromeda Galaxy, the most distant object normally visible to the naked eye, is about two million light years away. Furthermore, since the invention of the telescope four centuries ago, astronomers have discovered many more other galaxies and objects much farther away than a few thousand light years. Most notable are quasars, which according to most estimates, are billions of light years away. If the world is only thousands of light years old, none of these very distant objects ought to be visible. Kerosene lamps produce carbon dioxide (CO2). It is estimated that each kerosene lantern with a weekly fuel consumption of one litre of kerosene produces 0.1 tonnes of CO2 each year. In general, fuel-based lighting in the developing world is a source of 244 million tons of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere each year. This amounts to 58% of the CO2 emissions from residential electric lighting. The street lighting service looks after over 22, 000 street lights and illuminated traffic signs. Use the form below to let us know where the problem is.  Our field personnel typically address light issues within 72 hours of a reported issue. A study presented at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco found that light pollution destroys nitrate radicals thus preventing the normal night time reduction of atmospheric smog produced by fumes emitted from cars and factories.[82][83] The study was presented by Harald Stark from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We’re converting many of our street lights to energy-efficient Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology. Read more about our LED street lighting project. Multiple Streetlights – This is a form to report more than one streetlight issue for the same city/township. In a museum exhibit, monochromatic red light (λ = 648 nm) passes through a double slit and is projected onto a screen located 16.8 m from the slits. A metric ruler located above the interference pattern clearly shows the fifth dark fringe to be located 42.0 cm from the central bright spot. Determine the slit separation distance. In our living room, there are 4 light sources, each of which consists of 4 light bulbs. I assume all of those (16 in total) light bulbs are in parallel, because when one of them is broken, all the others (15 bulbs), still shine. We can turn those light bulbs on with a slider. So it is possible to let them shine on f.i. half the intensity. However, using the definition of “light pollution” from some Italian regional bills (i.e., “every irradiance of artificial light outside competence areas and particularly upward the sky”) only full cutoff design prevents light pollution. The Italian Lombardy region, where only full cutoff design is allowed (Lombardy act no. 17/2000, promoted by Cielobuio-coordination for the protection of the night sky), in 2007 had the lowest per capita energy consumption for public lighting in Italy. The same legislation also imposes a minimum distance between street lamps of about four times their height, so full cut off street lamps are the best solution to reduce both light pollution and electrical power usage. Zevs Maca peruana Stéroïdes erozon max Atlant Gel Zevs Erozon Max el macho Penigen 500 erogan

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