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under natural sunlight, starlight, and moonlight, with their associated natural cycles and seasons. All living things have natural biorhythms that work together with these natural sources of light. There weren’t always the artificial sources of light that we now have in the modern world, such as our street lights, lights from vehicles, electronics, billboards, and buildings, and many other sources of artificial human-created lights. While this abundance of artificial light has given us many advantages in our modern world, it is having many negative consequences on ourselves, our environment, and on all other living things. To report a street light outage, a light going on and off (cycling), a light on during the day, vandalism, or any other problem with a street light, call the Street Light Outage Hotline or use the online form. The light provided by a kerosene lamp is not very bright and is highly inefficient. Each kerosene lantern produces about 0.2% of the light that one would get for the same price in industrialized countries – about 2 to 4 lumens compared to 900 lumens produced by a 60 watt bulb. The big bang requires that opposite regions of the visible universe must have exchanged energy by radiation, since these regions of space look the same in CMB maps. But there has not been enough time for light to travel this distance. Both biblical creationists and big bang supporters have proposed a variety of possible solutions to light-travel–time difficulties in their respective models. So big-bangers should not criticize creationists for hypothesizing potential solutions, since they do the same thing with their own model. The horizon problem remains a serious difficulty for big bang supporters, as evidenced by their many competing conjectures that attempt to solve it. Therefore, it is inconsistent for supporters of the big bang model to use light-travel time as an argument against biblical creation, since their own notion has an equivalent problem. With this definition and sub-categorization, the use of light pollution as a framework for evaluating artificial nighttime lighting begins to come into focus. The undesired outputs of artificial nighttime lighting—be it any of the four broad types listed above—can then be considered in terms of effects. The consequences of light pollution are far reaching, and supporting research is often still at an early stage. However, the effects can likewise be subdivided into five broad categories: energy usage, ecology, health, safety, and the night sky. The past few decades have seen the first large-scale investigations of energy usage by artificial nighttime lighting, as well as its connection to economic costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The International Dark-Sky Association estimates that 22% of all energy in the USA is used for lighting, and of that around 8% is used for outdoor nighttime lighting (IDA, 2014 IDA. (2014). International Dark-Sky Association. International Dark-Sky Association. Retrieved 15 January, 2015, from https://darksky.org/ [Google Scholar]). Another recent study concluded that this number is closer to 6% (Gallaway, Olsen, & Mitchell, 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Such studies often focus not just on the amount of energy used for lighting, but specifically the amount of wasted light. A consistent estimate is that approximately 30% of outdoor lighting in the United States is wasted (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]; Henderson, 2010 Henderson, D. (2010). Valuing the stars: On the economics of light pollution. Environmental Philosophy, 7, 17–26.10.5840/envirophil2010712[Crossref] [Google Scholar]).77. By wasted, we can assume this percentage of lighting is deemed to fall within one (or more) of the categories listed above (skyglow, glare, light trespass, or clutter).View all notes This translates into roughly 73 million megawatt hours of ‘needlessly generated’ electricty, with an estimated annual cost of US$6.9 billion. Elimating this wasted light, in terms of CO2 reduction, is equivalent to removing 9.5 million cars from the road (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Similar estimates of wasted light in the European Union have predicted that the direct costs amount to €5.2 billion, or 23.5 billion kg of CO2 annually (Morgan-Taylor, 2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). With our novel question in mind, we must then ask how the concept of light pollution frames current challenges and associated ethical questions, and what actions it will guide us toward. However, it is pertinent to first clarify the notion of ‘framing’. Here, I use the term broadly to describe the conceptual lens through which problems will be defined and perceived, and through which solutions will be posed. Frames are helpful in crystallizing and formulating a problem, but in doing so also set the boundaries of possibility on potential solutions. In Frame Innovation (2015 Dorst, K. (2015). Frame innovation: Create new thinking by design. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar]), Dorst explains a method of design thinking used to overcome seemingly intractable real-world problems, dubbed the ‘frame creation model’. Building on the linguistic research of Lakoff and Johnson (1980 Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We live by. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]), Dorst explains that frames may be simple phrases, but in reality are subtle and complex thought tools. ‘Proposing a frame includes the use of certain concepts, which are assigned significance and meaning. These concepts are not neutral at all: they will steer explorations and perceptions in the process of creation’ (2015 Dorst, K. (2015). Frame innovation: Create new thinking by design. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar], p. 63). A good frame should be inspiring, original, robust, and create a common space for finding solutions. And once accepted, a frame will define the parameters of possibility. ‘Once frames are accepted, they become the context for routine behavior: once accepted, the frame immediately begins to fade. Statements that started life as original frames become limiting rationalities in themselves, holding back new developments’ (Dorst, 2015 Dorst, K. (2015). Frame innovation: Create new thinking by design. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar], p. 65). Lights on tall structures can disorient migrating birds. Estimates by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the number of birds killed after being attracted to tall towers range from 4 to 5 million per year to an order of magnitude higher.[65] The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) works with building owners in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and other cities to reduce mortality of birds by turning out lights during migration periods. Dear sir I want full lcd light track way in oppo Neo -7 Urgent problems with street lights, illuminated signs or bollards are: Please fill out the form below if you know of a street light that needs to be repaired. Jackson and Melanie are doing the Young’s Experiment Lab using a red laser pen and a slide with two slits spaced 25 micrometers apart. They project the interference pattern onto a whiteboard located 2.35 m from the slits. They measure the distance from the 3rd bright band on opposite sides of the pattern to be separated by 37 cm. Based on these measurements, what is the wavelength of the red laser light (in nanometers)? (GIVEN: 1 m = 106 mm, 1 m = 109 nm) In our living room, there are 4 light sources, each of which consists of 4 light bulbs. I assume all of those (16 in total) light bulbs are in parallel, because when one of them is broken, all the others (15 bulbs), still shine. We can turn those light bulbs on with a slider. So it is possible to let them shine on f.i. half the intensity. eracto erogan Erozon Max BeMass eracto power up premium Masculin Active power up premium Testo Ultra Eron Plus

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