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A first step is to consider the limitations for application, for which a consideration of language will be helpful. As the above discussion in Section 3 makes clear, light pollution is not simply a description of certain environmental impacts, but also an evaluation of the effects of nighttime lighting technologies and infrastructure. Light pollution is both a descriptive statement and a value judgment with normative implications—it categorizes certain uses and types of lighting as bad or wrong. Historically lighting often functioned as a form of safety and protection at night, but there has been a reversal. Now humans, animals, and the night sky require protection from artificial light. Importantly, articulating this shift in perspective via the notion of light as a pollutant adds a moral level to an otherwise technical discussion of illumination. But, in considering the creation of a moral space for deliberation, we should reflect on the implications of this label. Garrard (2004 Garrard, G. (2004). Ecocriticism. New York, NY: Routledge. [Google Scholar]), in assessing Rachel Carson’s iconic Silent Spring, notes that one of the book’s lasting achievements was expanding what was previously seen as a scientific issue (the usage of pesticides) into a social problem. By this, Garrard is referring to the categorization of pesticides as pollution. This is because ‘pollution’ does not name an actual thing, but rather provides an implicit normative claim that ‘too much of something is present in the environment, usually in the wrong place’ (2004 Garrard, G. (2004). Ecocriticism. New York, NY: Routledge. [Google Scholar], p. 6). Carson helped to reframe perspectives, allowing the usage of pesticides to be contested morally and politically. The same can be said of the concept of light pollution, generally considered: it breaks with the historical meanings and values associated with nighttime lighting, reframing discussions as a debate over how we ought to preserve and protect the night sky, as well as protect ourselves and ecosystems, from excess artificial light. In another study of blue light, researchers at the University of Toronto compared the melatonin levels of people exposed to bright indoor light who were wearing blue-light–blocking goggles to people exposed to regular dim light without wearing goggles. The fact that the levels of the hormone were about the same in the two groups strengthens the hypothesis that blue light is a potent suppressor of melatonin. It also suggests that shift workers and night owls could perhaps protect themselves if they wore eyewear that blocks blue light. Inexpensive sunglasses with orange-tinted lenses block blue light, but they also block other colors, so they’re not suitable for use indoors at night. Glasses that block out only blue light can cost up to $80. Zoom in to click on street light icon on the map below then select the problem from the drop down list. Contact Highways England if the street light is on a motorway or an ‘A road’ they manage in England. If you are reporting a hazardous condition (other than a malfunctioning light) DO NOT use this form. Please call 1-800-4OUTAGE (1-800-468-8243) to report the condition. Please note that the selected light will not change colour once reported. Over-illumination is the excessive use of light. Specifically within the United States, over-illumination is responsible for approximately two million barrels of oil per day in energy wasted.[citation needed] This is based upon U.S. consumption of equivalent of 18.8 million barrels per day (2,990,000 m3/d) of petroleum.[16] It is further noted in the same U.S. Department of Energy source that over 30% of all primary energy is consumed by commercial, industrial and residential sectors. Energy audits of existing buildings demonstrate that the lighting component of residential, commercial and industrial uses consumes about 20–40% of those land uses, variable with region and land use. (Residential use lighting consumes only 10–30% of the energy bill while commercial buildings’ major use is lighting.[17]) Thus lighting energy accounts for about four or five million barrels of oil (equivalent) per day. Again energy audit data demonstrates that about 30–60% of energy consumed in lighting is unneeded or gratuitous.[18] Turn off unnecessary lights outdoors and replace outdoor lights with low-glare versions. The International Dark-Sky Association certifies lights for low-glare and efficiency, and the company Starry Night Lights produces low light pollution lighting that is more environmentally-friendly. Please note that street lights are fixed as soon as possible, depending upon when crews are in the area and workload. The German-born, American physicist Albert Michelson devoted much of his life to the accurate measurement of the speed of light. In 1923, he positioned mirrors and detectors on two different California mountains positioned nearly 35 km (nearly 22 miles) apart. Using a sophisticated timing method of involving the rotating of octagonal mirrors, Michelson determined the speed of light to be 299,774 km/sec. At this speed, estimate the time it takes light to travel 35 km between mountains. We will not fit a shade to new LED street lighting for the first 3 months after installation. If there is still an issue after 3 months, please report the problem. That last suggestion seems to be of especially increasing concern. As an artifact of the lower costs of LEDs, many people are now unnecessarily illuminating places that they didn’t bother to light before, like the outsides of buildings and other infrastructure, according to a study in the journal Science Advances. Hartnett, J. 2003. A new cosmology: Solution to the starlight travel time problem. TJ 17, no. 2:98–102. To report a streetlight that’s out or malfunctioning, complete the form below (*Required). Hi! A few minutes ago, I had the same problem. I also dropped my camera and the red light won’t disappear. I’ve tried other batteries but it didn’t work. After 30 minutes of changing the batteries it worked again. I suggest you use AA LR6 batteries. They have to be from the SAME brand. Don’t use 2 different brand batteries. I hope it will work! (Also, please use NEW batteries. I changed my batteries with old ones and that’s probably why it didn’t work after 30 minutes) Recent creationists believe that the universe is only thousands of years old. The universe appears to be far larger than just a few thousand light years in size, suggesting the light travel time problem. However, by concentrating on the current age of the universe, we incorrectly formulate the light travel time problem. I recommend that we properly state the problem by noting that Adam had to see much of the universe at the conclusion of the Creation Week. We began with a problem (we have too much light at night) and a related question (how much artificial light at night is appropriate?). We now have the origins, context, and detailed definition in hand for the concept of light pollution. With this, we can return to the question of framing outlined in Section 2, and scrutinize the ethical significance of increasingly relying on light pollution for policy decision-making; we can assess the answer light pollution provides for our question. Increased regulation and alternative design approaches will be necessary to address the myriad of undesired effects uncovered in contemporary research. And, light pollution offers a framing to orient responses. Furthermore, in it’s broad understanding of causes and effects, light pollution accommodates a variety of interpretations, allowing for a multiplicity of regulatory and technical solutions. Dark sky ordinances and new laws already exist, which often include detailed technical specifications.99. Morgan-Taylor (2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]) provides a brief analysis of current regulatory efforts in Europe. France is cited as having perhaps the strongest law to date, which requires non-residential buildings to switch off exterior lights and window displays between 1am and 7am. Other examples cited include regions of Italy that have taken a technical approach, prohibited lights above a specific brightness to project above the horizontal. Additionally, an online appendix to the article by Kyba et al. (2014 Kyba, C., Hänel, A., & Hölker, F. (2014). Redefining efficiency for outdoor lighting. Energy & Environmental Science, 7, 1806–1809.10.1039/C4EE00566J[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) lists all known regulations and ordinances that are currently in place, as well as their motivations and targets.View all notes However, it is pertinent to reflect on the framework in which these decisions were made, and to consider how light pollution will shape future initiatives. TestX Core Erozon Max TestX Core Testo Ultra BioBelt Celuraid Muscle VigRX Maxman Zevs TestX Core

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