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Lights on tall structures can disorient migrating birds. Estimates by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the number of birds killed after being attracted to tall towers range from 4 to 5 million per year to an order of magnitude higher.[65] The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) works with building owners in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and other cities to reduce mortality of birds by turning out lights during migration periods. The big bang model assumes that the universe is many billions of years old. While this timescale is sufficient for light to travel from distant galaxies to earth, it does not provide enough time for light to travel from one side of the visible universe to the other. At the time the light was emitted, supposedly 300,000 years after the big bang, space already had a uniform temperature over a range at least ten times larger than the distance that light could have travelled (called the ‘horizon’)11 So, how can these regions look the same, i.e. have the same temperature? How can one side of the visible universe ‘know’ about the other side if there has not been enough time for the information to be exchanged? This is called the ‘horizon problem’.12 Secular astronomers have proposed many possible solutions to it, but no satisfactory one has emerged to date (see Attempts to overcome the big bang’s ‘light-travel–time problem’). Light pollution is the excessive or misdirected outdoor lighting that is threatening to destroy virtually all casual stargazing. Throughout much of the United States, for instance, millions upon millions of precious watts are wasted because poorly designed streetlamps send a portion of their light into the sky. But it’s not just stargazers who need to be concerned. While some may scoff at preserving the beauty of the night sky, there are other facets of light pollution that have a direct impact on all of us. Here are just a few examples: We own and look after most of the street lights in Kent. Parish and district councils own and look after some and some are privately owned. The light fixtures in our homes are remarkably effective and may work for years with little attention other than replacing an occasional burned-out light bulb. Sometimes, though, a light fixture that’s been working fine may suddenly develop a problem that requires diagnosis and repair. The correction can be very simple—such as replacing the light bulb or adjusting the light bulb socket—or as complex as replacing the entire light fixture or a wall switch. Please use this form to report a lighting issue. In a large house there is a basement with three rooms. In the middle of each room is a light. There are no windows in any of the rooms and no light switches. Wildlife:John Metcalfe at Citylab.com reported last year that lights are disorienting birds, with deadly results. “Many species migrate by night and are perilously dazzled by artificial illumination, for reasons we don’t yet completely understand,” Metcalfe wrote. “Lights on skyscrapers, airports, and stadiums draw birds into urban areas, where they smack into walls and windows or each other, or flap around and eventually perish from exhaustion-related complications.” The Dark-Sky Association was started to reduce the light going up into the sky which reduces visibility of stars (see Skyglow below). This is any light which is emitted more than 90° above nadir. By limiting light at this 90° mark they have also reduced the light output in the 80–90° range which creates most of the light trespass issues. Lighting is responsible for one-fourth of all electricity consumption worldwide,[citation needed] and case studies have shown that several forms of over-illumination constitute energy wastage, including non-beneficial upward direction of night-time lighting. In 2007, Terna, the company responsible for managing electricity flow in Italy, reported a saving of 645.2 million kWh in electricity consumption during the daylight savings period from April to October. It attributes this saving to the delayed need for artificial lighting during the evenings. If the check engine light comes on, here are some tips on what you should do: An alternative calculation starts with the fact that commercial building lighting consumes in excess of 81.68 terawatts (1999 data) of electricity,[19] according to the U.S. DOE. Thus commercial lighting alone consumes about four to five million barrels per day (equivalent) of petroleum, in line with the alternate rationale above to estimate U.S. lighting energy consumption. Even among developed countries there are large differences in patterns of light use. American cities emit 3–5 times more light to space per capita compared to German cities.[20] The International Commission on Illumination, also known as the CIE from its French title, la Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, will soon be releasing its own form of unified photometry for outdoor lighting. Call it the most misunderstood indicator on your dashboard: The check engine light can mean many different things, from a loose gas cap to a seriously misfiring engine. Light clutter refers to excessive groupings of lights. Groupings of lights may generate confusion, distract from obstacles (including those that they may be intended to illuminate), and potentially cause accidents. Clutter is particularly noticeable on roads where the street lights are badly designed, or where brightly lit advertising surrounds the roadways. Depending on the motives of the person or organization that installed the lights, their placement and design can even be intended to distract drivers, and can contribute to accidents. If the light comes on, Mazor says the driver should first see if the gas cap is loose: That’s a common cause. A loose cap sends an error message to the car’s computer, reporting a leak in the vapor recovery system, which is one aspect of a car’s emissions system. If the gas cap is loose, tighten it and continue driving. Even so, it will take some time for the light to go off, he says. If the street light is on the M4, A470 or A465 (Heads of the Valleys road) please contact Traffic Wales on 0845 602 6020. Occasionally, the Check Engine light comes on when nothing is wrong with the car, Mazor says. It could be a temporary problem caused by a change in humidity or other factors. In such cases, the light should go off by itself after a short time. Section 2 discusses the moral and political significance of framing problems, in relation to the novel environmental problem of excess artificial nighttime lighting in cities. Section 3 then analyzes the concept of light pollution in detail. Here, both the origins of the concept and its current manifestations are presented, in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of light pollution. Section 4 returns to the question of how light pollution frames concerns and possible responses, and discusses two interrelated questions: the potential limitations of the concept as a normative or prescriptive tool, and the ambiguities and inconsistencies in its practical application that require clarification. Thus, first steps are taken in dissecting the ethical significance of the concept of light pollution and the role it can play in addressing the adverse effects of artificial nighttime lighting. Nighttime illumination, once scarce, is now possessed in abundance and unavoidably ubiquitous. As a result, though, an interrelated shift in perception and valuation emerged—a shift that is critical to present discourse. With this abundance and ubiquity, a renewed attention was given to what is hindered by light. Darkness became, as Hasenöhrl notes, a valorized and ‘sought-after luxury’ of our electrified nights (2014 Hasenöhrl, U. (2014). Lighting conflicts from a historical perspective. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution, and society (pp. 105–124). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar], p. 119). As a result, our taken-for-granted infrastructure of artificial nighttime lighting has been re-noticed, but in a new light. Concerns are increasingly articulated through a sense of loss—a loss of connection to starlight, or an aspect of nature, or the sublime, or a piece of our humanity—brought about by the loss of dark or ‘natural’ nights (e.g. Bogard, 2013 Bogard, P. (2013). The end of night: Searching for natural darkness in an age of artificial light. New York, NY: Back Bay Books. [Google Scholar]). eracto Stéroïdes Testogen power up premium xtrasize erozon max power up premium erogan power up premium erogran

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