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But what of the details of the transition between the miraculous transmission of light over great distances to the relatively slow pace today, all accomplished on Day Four? Would this imply a transition region that still might be reaching the earth today? Might there be some implication for the Hubble relation, the general trend of increasing redshift with increasing distance? Alas, I do not know. These and many other questions must be addressed for my proposal to be taken seriously by fellow creation scientists. I hope that with time to reflect, discussion with others, and perhaps the work of others on my proposals may yield some insight into these and many more questions. I place this proposal before others to stimulate discussion. An alternative calculation starts with the fact that commercial building lighting consumes in excess of 81.68 terawatts (1999 data) of electricity,[19] according to the U.S. DOE. Thus commercial lighting alone consumes about four to five million barrels per day (equivalent) of petroleum, in line with the alternate rationale above to estimate U.S. lighting energy consumption. Even among developed countries there are large differences in patterns of light use. American cities emit 3–5 times more light to space per capita compared to German cities.[20] Reports of lights out are inspected during the day, so it is very important to give an exact location or the light number. The street light number can be found on the light column at eye level facing the road. Please use this form to report a lighting issue. Section 2 discusses the moral and political significance of framing problems, in relation to the novel environmental problem of excess artificial nighttime lighting in cities. Section 3 then analyzes the concept of light pollution in detail. Here, both the origins of the concept and its current manifestations are presented, in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of light pollution. Section 4 returns to the question of how light pollution frames concerns and possible responses, and discusses two interrelated questions: the potential limitations of the concept as a normative or prescriptive tool, and the ambiguities and inconsistencies in its practical application that require clarification. Thus, first steps are taken in dissecting the ethical significance of the concept of light pollution and the role it can play in addressing the adverse effects of artificial nighttime lighting. If the light bulb does not light up at all, follow this troubleshooting procedure: Use the form below to let us know where the problem is.  Our field personnel typically address light issues within 72 hours of a reported issue. If you’ve noticed an outdoor light within our service area that’s in need of maintenance, please complete and submit the form below. Display light problem in an iPhone 5S normally occurs when your phone has encountered any kind of water damage. In such a condition your phone works normally, but it becomes really very hard for you to perform different functions on your phone, especially in sunlight, as it will become very problematic for you to perform different functions. Hence overcoming this issue is surely very important for you. Stray light, in the sky or elsewhere, is wasted light – it is not needed for and does not help visibility. It is really a mistake that it is there. Why does it happen? We can see the emergence of the concept of light pollution as—at least in part—a reactionary shift in perception to the widespread proliferation of electric illumination at night. A recent New York Times article quoted a behavioral ecologist as stating that we need to ‘start thinking of a photon as a potential pollutant’ (St. Fleur, 2016 St. Fleur, N. (2016, April 7). Illuminating the effects of light pollution. New York Times. Retrieved 7 April, 2016, from [Google Scholar]). To accept this re-framing is to begin seeing artificial nighttime lighting as spreading polluting photons into the atmosphere, the environment, and ourselves. Answers will likely take the form of either preservation or mitigation strategies—certainly not a bad approach, but it does draw attention to the importance of light pollution as a framework through which solutions can emerge. Regulations and strategies based on light pollution will necessarily focus on reducing the negative or adverse effects of nighttime lighting; on protecting those things or resources affected, and/or cutting out that 30% of lighting considered to be ‘wasted’ (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). As a regulatory tool, this can be quite useful, and follows a similar strategy as attempts to regulate other pollutants. Type of problem choose one Lights not operating Lights going on and off Lights on during the day Broken glass Open, broken, or missing light fixture Damaged poles Exposed wires Graffiti on street light poles Other Please note that street lights are fixed as soon as possible, depending upon when crews are in the area and workload. Energy consumption:Joshua Filmer of reported in 2013 that at least 30 percent of street lighting is wasted — light that shines up into the sky, where it does no good. “Calculations show that 22,000 gigawatt-hours a year are wasted. At $0.10 per kilowatt-hour, the cost of that wasted energy is $2.2 billion a year,” Filmer wrote. “That’s 3.6 tons of coal or 12.9 million barrels of oil wasted every year to produce this lost light.” Please fill out the form below if you know of a street light that needs to be repaired. Disadvantages of low pressure sodium lighting are that fixtures must usually be larger than competing fixtures, and that color cannot be distinguished, due to its emitting principally a single wavelength of light (see security lighting). Due to the substantial size of the lamp, particularly in higher wattages such as 135 W and 180 W, control of light emissions from low pressure sodium luminaires is more difficult. For applications requiring more precise direction of light (such as narrow roadways) the native lamp efficacy advantage of this lamp type is decreased and may be entirely lost compared to high pressure sodium lamps. Allegations that this also leads to higher amounts of light pollution from luminaires running these lamps arise principally because of older luminaires with poor shielding, still widely in use in the UK and in some other locations. Modern low-pressure sodium fixtures with better optics and full shielding, and the decreased skyglow impacts of yellow light preserve the luminous efficacy advantage of low-pressure sodium and result in most cases is less energy consumption and less visible light pollution. Unfortunately, due to continued lack of accurate information,[92] many lighting professionals continue to disparage low-pressure sodium, contributing to its decreased acceptance and specification in lighting standards and therefore its use. Another disadvantage of low-pressure sodium lamps is that some people find the characteristic yellow light very displeasing aesthetically.[citation needed] Don’t Ignore That Light So if the Check Engine light comes on and it’s steady rather than flashing, what do you do? The most obvious answer, of course, is to get the engine checked. But many people do nothing, perhaps fearing an expensive repair bill. Some drivers with older cars want to squeeze out as many remaining miles as possible without visiting a service garage. But before they can pass their state’s vehicle inspection, they have to get the light turned off. And a state inspection is a good motivator for dealing with the problem. If the light is lit, there’s a good chance the car is releasing excess pollutants or consuming too much gas. Disputes are still common when deciding appropriate action; and differences in opinion over what light is considered reasonable, and who should be responsible, mean that negotiation must sometimes take place between parties. Where objective measurement is desired, light levels can be quantified by field measurement or mathematical modeling, with results typically displayed as an isophote map or light contour map. Authorities have also taken a variety of measures for dealing with light pollution, depending on the interests, beliefs and understandings of the society involved.[citation needed] Measures range from doing nothing at all, to implementing strict laws and regulations about how lights may be installed and used. power up premium VigRX Plus Eron Plus TestX Core erogran vigrx VigRX Plus Peruanisches Maca Penigen 500 Eron Plus