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We can see the emergence of the concept of light pollution as—at least in part—a reactionary shift in perception to the widespread proliferation of electric illumination at night. A recent New York Times article quoted a behavioral ecologist as stating that we need to ‘start thinking of a photon as a potential pollutant’ (St. Fleur, 2016 St. Fleur, N. (2016, April 7). Illuminating the effects of light pollution. New York Times. Retrieved 7 April, 2016, from https://www.nytimes.com/ [Google Scholar]). To accept this re-framing is to begin seeing artificial nighttime lighting as spreading polluting photons into the atmosphere, the environment, and ourselves. Answers will likely take the form of either preservation or mitigation strategies—certainly not a bad approach, but it does draw attention to the importance of light pollution as a framework through which solutions can emerge. Regulations and strategies based on light pollution will necessarily focus on reducing the negative or adverse effects of nighttime lighting; on protecting those things or resources affected, and/or cutting out that 30% of lighting considered to be ‘wasted’ (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). As a regulatory tool, this can be quite useful, and follows a similar strategy as attempts to regulate other pollutants. The light fixtures in our homes are remarkably effective and may work for years with little attention other than replacing an occasional burned-out light bulb. Sometimes, though, a light fixture that’s been working fine may suddenly develop a problem that requires diagnosis and repair. The correction can be very simple—such as replacing the light bulb or adjusting the light bulb socket—or as complex as replacing the entire light fixture or a wall switch. In a large house there is a basement with three rooms. In the middle of each room is a light. There are no windows in any of the rooms and no light switches. This did not fix the problem. The two bulbs were still coming on dimly at the same time when pressing the brake pedal.  Now I should turn this into a contest. You electrical wizards out there may already have a good guess.  In all my years of working on all types of cars – almost every time I have run across a problem with front and rear lights doing weird things – and by that I mean not glowing brightly, cross feeding, coming on at the wrong time, intermittent operations, etc, etc, it has almost always turned out to be an electrical grounding problem.  And it was no different here.  I took a close look at the grounding strap connecting points and I could see corrosion.  I applied some dielectric grease and squeezed the contact points together with some needle nose pliers and Wallaah – the running bulb went off and the brake light bulb came on super bright.  A good day and another one fixed. This light is switched off for energy saving. The below discussion is organized under two broad questions, with the aim of elucidating the moral limitations and practical ambiguities existing within the concept of light pollution, when considered as a framework for moral and political decision-making. These two sections should not be seen as mutually exclusive, but as actively informing one another. Attaching the language and connotations of pollution to nighttime lighting is effective, but may also set boundaries on possible solutions. This is a very specific answer to the question of how much light is appropriate, which comes with limitations. As a moral concept, light pollution can tell us what bad lighting is, but says relatively little about what good lighting is. Because of the focus on the (adverse) causes and effects of artificial nighttime lighting, the concept is limited in its capacity to inform choices within the realm good lighting, especially in cities where there are other values at play. Light pollution says very little about artificial nighttime illumination deemed to be within the acceptable limits of polluting, or the many values and needs strived for therein (for example, esthetics and nightlife). Thus, there are limits to the capacity of light pollution to inform moral evaluations, as it frames decisions as questions about acceptable levels of polluting. Because of the increased sensitivity of the human eye to blue and green wavelengths when viewing low-luminances (the Purkinje effect) in the night sky, different sources produce dramatically different amounts of visible skyglow from the same amount of light sent into the atmosphere. A newer method for predicting and measuring various aspects of light pollution was described in the journal Lighting Research Technology (September 2008). Scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Lighting Research Center have developed a comprehensive method called Outdoor Site-Lighting Performance (OSP), which allows users to quantify, and thus optimize, the performance of existing and planned lighting designs and applications to minimize excessive or obtrusive light leaving the boundaries of a property. OSP can be used by lighting engineers immediately, particularly for the investigation of glow and trespass (glare analyses are more complex to perform and current commercial software does not readily allow them), and can help users compare several lighting design alternatives for the same site.[100] The physics of fluorescent lights can’t be changed, but coatings inside the bulbs can be so they produce a warmer, less blue light. LED lights are more efficient than fluorescent lights, but they also produce a fair amount of light in the blue spectrum. Richard Hansler, a light researcher at John Carroll University in Cleveland, notes that ordinary incandescent lights also produce some blue light, although less than most fluorescent lightbulbs. New LED streetlights have a small box on top of each column that flash a very small red and blue light. Please do not report any streetlights found to have these on, as this is to confirm that they are connected to our central management system. While light of any kind can suppress the secretion of melatonin, blue light at night does so more powerfully. Harvard researchers and their colleagues conducted an experiment comparing the effects of 6.5 hours of exposure to blue light to exposure to green light of comparable brightness. The blue light suppressed melatonin for about twice as long as the green light and shifted circadian rhythms by twice as much (3 hours vs. 1.5 hours). The Simons Cracking the Glass collaboration held a workshop on Oct 22-26, 2017 at Royaumont Abbey outside Paris, France. The intimate, focused workshop involved PIs, affillates, postdocs and students, with a goal of synthesizing progress, highlighting new discoveries with the potential to catalyze additional collaboration within the group, and coordinating future effort. However, there are two important points that we ought to consider. First, astronomers think that a few faint objects visible to the naked eye are much farther away than a few thousand light years. For instance, M31, the Andromeda Galaxy, the most distant object normally visible to the naked eye, is about two million light years away. Furthermore, since the invention of the telescope four centuries ago, astronomers have discovered many more other galaxies and objects much farther away than a few thousand light years. Most notable are quasars, which according to most estimates, are billions of light years away. If the world is only thousands of light years old, none of these very distant objects ought to be visible. The Dark-Sky Association was started to reduce the light going up into the sky which reduces visibility of stars (see Skyglow below). This is any light which is emitted more than 90° above nadir. By limiting light at this 90° mark they have also reduced the light output in the 80–90° range which creates most of the light trespass issues. The street lighting service looks after over 22, 000 street lights and illuminated traffic signs. Atlant Gel Tonus Fortis power up premium TestX Core BioBelt power up premium TestX Core VigRX eracto power up premium

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