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A second important point is that by concentrating upon the very distant objects, the light travel time problem is not formulated properly, for the situation is far worse! Most treatments of the light travel time problem concentrate upon the question of how we can see objects more than 6,000 lt-yr away. Because most objects clearly visible to the naked eye are well within 6,000 lt-yr, they aren’t a problem in a recent creation. But while it is possible for us to see most of the naked eye stars and today, some millennia after the Creation Week, it would not have been possible for Adam to have seen any stars (other than the sun) for at least four years after his creation. The stars were made on Day Four, and Adam was made on Day Six. The nearest star after the sun is 4.3 lt-yr away, so Adam could not have seen even the closest star for more than four years, and then stars would have slowly winked in over the succeeding years. However, the stars could not have fulfilled their God ordained functions when Adam first saw them after Day Six. These functions include being used to mark seasons and the passage of time (we still do this today with the day, month, and year). The passage of the year and the seasons are reckoned by how the sun appears to move against the background stars as the earth orbits the sun. Absent these background stars, it would not be possible to determine the passage of the year and of the seasons. Therefore, to truly solve the light travel time problem, light from stars even a few light years away must have been visible only days after their creation (and it is likely that the light of all the astronomical objects reaching the earth today also reached the earth at this early time). Any realistic solution to the light travel time problem must explain how Adam could have seen any stars on the evening following Day Six. Once that issue is resolved, the light travel time problem for truly distant objects probably is solved as well. At any rate, we ought to properly formulate the light travel time problem in all discussions of this issue. Light pollution is a topic gaining importance and acceptance in environmental discourse. This concept provides a framework for categorizing the adverse effects of nighttime lighting, which advocacy groups and regulatory efforts are increasingly utilizing. However, the ethical significance of the concept has, thus far, received little critical reflection. In this paper, I analyze the moral implications of framing issues in nighttime lighting via the concept of light pollution. First, the moral and political importance of problem framing is discussed. Next, the origins and contemporary understandings of light pollution are presented. Finally, the normative limitations and practical ambiguities of light pollution are discussed, with the aim of strengthening the framework through which decisions about urban nighttime lighting strategies are increasingly approached. A second important point is that by concentrating upon the very distant objects, the light travel time problem is not formulated properly, for the situation is far worse! Most treatments of the light travel time problem concentrate upon the question of how we can see objects more than 6,000 lt-yr away. Because most objects clearly visible to the naked eye are well within 6,000 lt-yr, they aren’t a problem in a recent creation. But while it is possible for us to see most of the naked eye stars and today, some millennia after the Creation Week, it would not have been possible for Adam to have seen any stars (other than the sun) for at least four years after his creation. The stars were made on Day Four, and Adam was made on Day Six. The nearest star after the sun is 4.3 lt-yr away, so Adam could not have seen even the closest star for more than four years, and then stars would have slowly winked in over the succeeding years. However, the stars could not have fulfilled their God ordained functions when Adam first saw them after Day Six. These functions include being used to mark seasons and the passage of time (we still do this today with the day, month, and year). The passage of the year and the seasons are reckoned by how the sun appears to move against the background stars as the earth orbits the sun. Absent these background stars, it would not be possible to determine the passage of the year and of the seasons. Therefore, to truly solve the light travel time problem, light from stars even a few light years away must have been visible only days after their creation (and it is likely that the light of all the astronomical objects reaching the earth today also reached the earth at this early time). Any realistic solution to the light travel time problem must explain how Adam could have seen any stars on the evening following Day Six. Once that issue is resolved, the light travel time problem for truly distant objects probably is solved as well. At any rate, we ought to properly formulate the light travel time problem in all discussions of this issue. If the faulty street light is considered to be dangerous, we will respond to the complaint within two hours to make the unit safe. A full cutoff fixture, when correctly installed, reduces the chance for light to escape above the plane of the horizontal. Light released above the horizontal may sometimes be lighting an intended target, but often serves no purpose. When it enters into the atmosphere, light contributes to sky glow. Some governments and organizations are now considering, or have already implemented, full cutoff fixtures in street lamps and stadium lighting. Maria and Jason are doing the same lab as Jackson and Melanie (from the previous problem). Maria and Jason determine the distance between the central bight spot and the 4th bright spot to be 29 cm. The distance from their slide to the whiteboard (where the interference pattern is projected) is 2.76 m. The slits in their slide are also spaced 25 micrometers apart. Based on Maria and Jason’s measurements, what is the wavelength of the red laser light (in nanometers)? (GIVEN: 1 m = 106 mm, 1 m = 109 nm) It is worthwhile to quickly note that, as with most transformational technologies, nighttime lighting has not always been met with open arms. Hasenöhrl (2014 Hasenöhrl, U. (2014). Lighting conflicts from a historical perspective. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution, and society (pp. 105–124). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar], p. 105) notes that while the introduction of new lighting technologies was in general positively received, this did not imply universal endorsement or ‘a universal devaluation of the “dark night” as a whole’. The consequences of artificial nighttime lighting have been under debate since the nineteenth century, and some criticisms of artificial nighttime lighting can be found even earlier.55. Criticisms can be found as early as 1662, when a London pastor stated ‘We ought not to turn day into night, nor night into day … without some very special and urgent occasion’ (Ekirch, 2005 Ekirch, R. A. (2005). At day’s close: Night in times past. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar], p. 74). This was due to the disruption of the perceived natural (Christian) order that such lighting may cause. However, most criticisms are found in the nineteenth century onward, and specifically around times of transition between technologies. Early objections were often esthetic, however moral objections can also be found (Hasenöhrl, 2014 Hasenöhrl, U. (2014). Lighting conflicts from a historical perspective. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution, and society (pp. 105–124). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). There are documented criticisms of artificial nighttime lighting in astronomy-related literature as early as 1866 (Sperling, 1991 Sperling, N. (1991). The disappearance of darkness. In D. L. Crawford (Ed.), Light pollution, radio interference, and space debris (Vol. 17, pp. 101–108). San Francisco, CA: Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. [Google Scholar]). Already in the 1880s, Alexander Pelham Tottler—generally regarded as the originator of the scientific study of lighting—identified issues with street lighting that predict modern debates. For example, he argued that too much light is wasted, and that glare causes safety concerns (Bowers, 1998 Bowers, B. (1998). Lengthening the day: A history of lighting technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]). Naturalists and artists expressed ambiguity (at best) towards artificial light as early as the 1920s (Nye, 1990 Nye, D. E. (1990). Electrifying America: Social meanings of a new technology, 1880–1940. Cambridge: MIT Press. [Google Scholar]), and by this time there were already some calls for lighting engineers to reduce urban brightness (Isenstadt, 2014 Isenstadt, S. (2014). Good night. Places Journal. Retrieved 22 October, 2014, from https://placesjournal.org/article/good-night/[Crossref] [Google Scholar]).View all notes The most outspoken critics have been astronomers, as reduced stellar visibility has been a long-noticed effect of urban lighting (Sperling, 1991 Sperling, N. (1991). The disappearance of darkness. In D. L. Crawford (Ed.), Light pollution, radio interference, and space debris (Vol. 17, pp. 101–108). San Francisco, CA: Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. [Google Scholar]). Still, in the larger narrative of lighting technologies these objections were the exception—nighttime lighting was mostly seen as necessary and desirable for modern urban life (Hasenöhrl, 2014 Hasenöhrl, U. (2014). Lighting conflicts from a historical perspective. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution, and society (pp. 105–124). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). eracto sterydy eracto VigRX TestX Core Testogen Masculin Active Zevs BioBelt VigRX

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