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Creating a coherent and effective frame for the challenges of nighttime lighting carries its own idiosyncratic considerations. Beyond functionality, the symbolic meanings of lighting technologies have played an active role in determining their uses and acceptance (Nye, 2006 Nye, D. E. (2006). Technology matters: Questions to live with. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar]). Throughout history, perceptions of nighttime lighting have consistently blurred the literal and the symbolic; intertwined actual lighting with metaphorical notions of the values that lighting embodies (Schivelbusch, 1988 Schivelbusch, W. (1988). Disenchanted night: The industrialization of light in the nineteenth century. (A. Davis, Trans.) London: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]). This is not entirely surprising, as metaphors are pervasive in our everyday language (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980 Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We live by. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]) and politics (Stone, 2002 Stone, D. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]). A metaphorical concept allows us to see one thing in terms of another—in this case, to see some outputs of artificial lighting as a ‘pollutant’ of the night sky, our bodies, and ecosystems. Like sound pollution, it is a powerful framing that will shape how we think, speak, and act with regards to nighttime lighting technologies. Conceptual metaphors are useful but also can be troublesome, because Check Engine lights come in orange, yellow or amber, depending on the manufacturer. If the light begins flashing, however, it indicates a more serious problem, such as a misfire that can quickly overheat the catalytic converter. These emissions devices operate at high temperatures to cut emissions, but can pose a fire hazard if faulty. Use the form below to let us know where the problem is.  Our field personnel typically address light issues within 72 hours of a reported issue. According to the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA), “Outdoor lighting with high blue light content is more likely to contribute to light pollution because it has a significantly larger geographic reach than lighting with less blue light. Blue-rich white light sources are also known to increase glare and compromise human vision. And in natural settings, blue light at night has been shown to adversely affect wildlife behavior and reproduction.” When reporting a lighting fault to us it would be helpful if you could supply: Light trespass can be reduced by selecting light fixtures which limit the amount of light emitted more than 80° above the nadir. The IESNA definitions include full cutoff (0%), cutoff (10%), and semi-cutoff (20%). (These definitions also include limits on light emitted above 90° to reduce sky glow.) A more recent discussion (2009), written by Professor Steven Lockley, Harvard Medical School, can be found in the CfDS handbook “Blinded by the Light?”.[50] Chapter 4, “Human health implications of light pollution” states that “… light intrusion, even if dim, is likely to have measurable effects on sleep disruption and melatonin suppression. Even if these effects are relatively small from night to night, continuous chronic circadian, sleep and hormonal disruption may have longer-term health risks”. The New York Academy of Sciences hosted a meeting in 2009 on Circadian Disruption and Cancer.[51] Red light suppresses melatonin the least.[52] You are taken to the attic. Your task is to try to determine which switch controls which light. Once you leave the attic, you may not return. You may visit two of the rooms in the basement once, and once only. No room, or the light emanating from it, is visible from any other room. You may not call upon the help of any other persons, or use any additional apparatus. CarMD published a list of the five most common Check Engine light codes in 2010 and estimated cost of repair. In order of frequency, they are: What all definitions have in common—either explicitly or implicitly—is the goal of establishing a base upon which the negative effects of artificial nighttime illumination can be categorized. Toward this end, Gallaway’s definition opens us to the broader range of concerns embodied by the contemporary usage of the term—light pollution is not meant to condemn nighttime lighting as a whole, but rather specific uses and outputs of artificial lighting. These negative or undesired aspects of nighttime lighting can be subdivided into four categories: skyglow, glare, light trespass, and clutter.66. These four categories of light pollution are used (although with slightly different terms) by the International Dark-Sky Association, and cited elsewhere as well (e.g. Morgan-Taylor, 2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). As such, I am accepting these as the standard causes of light pollution.View all notes Skyglow is light sent upward (directly or reflected) and scattered in the atmosphere, causing artificial ambient brightness and decreasing stellar visibility (Mizon, 2012 Mizon, B. (2012). Light pollution: Responses and remedies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.10.1007/978-1-4614-3822-9[Crossref] [Google Scholar]). This is the orange haze often seen above cities, and the largest burden for astronomy. It has also arguably been the dominant focus of efforts to quantify light pollution, as some landmark studies rely on satellite imagery (e.g. Cinzano, Falchi, & Elvidge, 2001 Cinzano, P., Falchi, F., & Elvidge, C. D. (2001). The first world Atlas of the artificial night sky brightness. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 328, 689–707.10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04882.x[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). The other three forms of light pollution are more commonly experienced hinderences in daily life: glare occurs when excessive brightness reduces visibility (e.g. a floodlight at eye level), light trespass is unwanted or unintended light (e.g. light shining into your bedroom window at night), and clutter is caused by over-illuminated clusters of light sources (e.g. signage and advertising) (IDA, 2014 IDA. (2014). International Dark-Sky Association. International Dark-Sky Association. Retrieved 15 January, 2015, from https://darksky.org/ [Google Scholar]; Morgan-Taylor, 2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). Urgent problems with street lights, illuminated signs or bollards are: In June 2016, it was estimated that one third of the world’s population could no longer see the Milky Way, including 80% of Americans and 60% of Europeans. Singapore was found to be the most light-polluted country in the world.[32][28] Nighttime illumination, once scarce, is now possessed in abundance and unavoidably ubiquitous. As a result, though, an interrelated shift in perception and valuation emerged—a shift that is critical to present discourse. With this abundance and ubiquity, a renewed attention was given to what is hindered by light. Darkness became, as Hasenöhrl notes, a valorized and ‘sought-after luxury’ of our electrified nights (2014 Hasenöhrl, U. (2014). Lighting conflicts from a historical perspective. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution, and society (pp. 105–124). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar], p. 119). As a result, our taken-for-granted infrastructure of artificial nighttime lighting has been re-noticed, but in a new light. Concerns are increasingly articulated through a sense of loss—a loss of connection to starlight, or an aspect of nature, or the sublime, or a piece of our humanity—brought about by the loss of dark or ‘natural’ nights (e.g. Bogard, 2013 Bogard, P. (2013). The end of night: Searching for natural darkness in an age of artificial light. New York, NY: Back Bay Books. [Google Scholar]). The Omphalos hypothesis or argument provides an unscientific and unfalsifiable explanation for the starlight problem. The argument relies on the logically weak argument goddidit by claiming that the starlight we see is not natural but was in fact created in transit by God. VigRX Plus Masculin Active mochoman VigRX BioBelt TestX Core xtrasize el macho Celuraid Muscle Zevs

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