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I have outwalked the furthest city light, ends the first stanza of Robert Frost’s poem ‘Acquainted with the Night’. For many contemporary urban dwellers, such a feat is becoming exceedingly difficult in our electrified, 24 h societies. While artificial nighttime illumination has brought with it many advances and possibilities, the negative consequences of its ubiquity and proliferation have only recently emerged as a topic of inquiry. Discourse is increasingly framing concerns about nighttime lighting via the concept of light pollution, particularly with respect to environmental effects. However, light pollution has received relatively little attention compared to other environmental problems, remaining scientifically and culturally ‘in the dark’ (Hölker et al., 2010 Hölker, F., Moss, T., Griefahn, B., Kloas, W., Voigt, C., Henckel, D., … Tockner, K. (2010). The dark side of light: A transdisciplinary research agenda for light pollution policy. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 13.10.5751/ES-03685-150413[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Equally important, the framing of environmental problems caused by artificial nighttime lighting via the concept of light pollution has received little critical attention. Understandings of light pollution are reliant on seemingly technical descriptions—light pollution is used to categorize and quantify the adverse effects of artificial nighttime illumination. But such a categorization carries an implicit normative judgment, and should not be accepted without critical reflection. The Dark-Sky Association was started to reduce the light going up into the sky which reduces visibility of stars (see Skyglow below). This is any light which is emitted more than 90° above nadir. By limiting light at this 90° mark they have also reduced the light output in the 80–90° range which creates most of the light trespass issues. Your Check Engine Light may be indicating a simple problem that’s easy to fix – such as a loose gas cap. Or, it could be a warning of a more serious problem that could damage your engine components. Finding out why your light is on now can save you money and trouble down the road. In another study of blue light, researchers at the University of Toronto compared the melatonin levels of people exposed to bright indoor light who were wearing blue-light–blocking goggles to people exposed to regular dim light without wearing goggles. The fact that the levels of the hormone were about the same in the two groups strengthens the hypothesis that blue light is a potent suppressor of melatonin. It also suggests that shift workers and night owls could perhaps protect themselves if they wore eyewear that blocks blue light. Inexpensive sunglasses with orange-tinted lenses block blue light, but they also block other colors, so they’re not suitable for use indoors at night. Glasses that block out only blue light can cost up to $80. Outages are usually repaired within five working days. If the fault is regarding the electricity supply to the light we inform the local electricity company who usually attend within eight working days of receiving report. For a comprehensive understanding of light pollution, contemporary discourse must be coupled with an exploration of the origins and emergence of the concept, which in turn requires a broad understanding of the development of urban nighttime lighting. Detailed historical studies into the technological innovations and social implications of artificial nighttime lighting have been published in the past few decades (e.g. Bowers, 1998 Bowers, B. (1998). Lengthening the day: A history of lighting technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]; Ekirch, 2005 Ekirch, R. A. (2005). At day’s close: Night in times past. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]; Isenstadt, Maile Petty, & Neumann, 2014 Isenstadt, S., Maile Petty, M., & Neumann, D. (Eds.). (2014). Cities of light: Two centuries of urban illumination. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]; Nye, 1990 Nye, D. E. (1990). Electrifying America: Social meanings of a new technology, 1880–1940. Cambridge: MIT Press. [Google Scholar]; Schivelbusch, 1988 Schivelbusch, W. (1988). Disenchanted night: The industrialization of light in the nineteenth century. (A. Davis, Trans.) London: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]). And, important studies on the social, economic, and legal aspects of nighttime lighting have also been published recently (e.g. Meier, Hasenöhrl, Krause, & Pottharst, 2014 Meier, J., Hasenöhrl, U., Krause, K., & Pottharst, M. (Eds.). (2014). Urban lighting, light pollution and society. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). The brief discussion below cannot do full justice to the in-depth explorations of nighttime lighting that these scholars have explored, nor to the various cultural and geographical nuances of historical developments in lighting. Rather, I would like to highlight the conditions within which light pollution arose, which puts us in a better position to assess our contemporary definition and ask how the framing of light pollution responds to the core problem discussed above. In particular, Sections 3.1 and 3.2 will highlight the shift away from how to light cities and, somewhat paradoxically, toward a desire for dark or natural nights. Put otherwise, In another example, the city of Calgary has recently replaced most residential street lights with models that are comparably energy efficient.[98] The motivation is primarily operation cost and environmental conservation. The costs of installation are expected to be regained through energy savings within six to seven years. According study conducted by CarMD, five common malfunctions cause the check engine light to come on, and several of them are simple to fix yourself. Let’s take a look at the most common issues. Light pollution is the excessive or misdirected outdoor lighting that is threatening to destroy virtually all casual stargazing. Throughout much of the United States, for instance, millions upon millions of precious watts are wasted because poorly designed streetlamps send a portion of their light into the sky. But it’s not just stargazers who need to be concerned. While some may scoff at preserving the beauty of the night sky, there are other facets of light pollution that have a direct impact on all of us. Here are just a few examples: The concept of light pollution coalesced in the early 1970s, amid a climate of political activism, rising environmental awareness, and an energy crisis. In discussing lighting conflicts in Germany—but providing generally applicable conclusions—Hasenöhrl (2014 Hasenöhrl, U. (2014). Lighting conflicts from a historical perspective. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution, and society (pp. 105–124). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar], p. 119) notes that ‘it was not before the oil crises and the growing environmental and heritage movements of the 1970s that lighting as a particularly visible form of energy consumption and as an object of cultural value regained public and political attention’. Lighting, at this point a ubiquitious everyday experience, was given new attention but in a very different framework: that it is polluting the night sky. Sperling (1991 Sperling, N. (1991). The disappearance of darkness. In D. L. Crawford (Ed.), Light pollution, radio interference, and space debris (Vol. 17, pp. 101–108). San Francisco, CA: Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. [Google Scholar]) gives a brief narrative of the term’s popularization, explaining that in the politically charged atmosphere of the 1960s and 1970s astronomers began advocating for the curbing of excess lighting detrimental to starlight visibility. Then during the 1973 energy crisis urban areas saw an increase in energy conservation efforts, resulting in decreases to public lighting (Neumann, 2002b Neumann, D. (2002b). Architectural illumination since World War II. In D. Neumann (Ed.), Architecture of the night: The illuminated building (pp. 78–84). New York, NY: Prestel. [Google Scholar]). Astronomers used the anti-waste strategies of the time to fight excess artificial nighttime brightness, which is when, according to Sperling, ‘the struggle took on its current aspect’ (1991 Sperling, N. (1991). The disappearance of darkness. In D. L. Crawford (Ed.), Light pollution, radio interference, and space debris (Vol. 17, pp. 101–108). San Francisco, CA: Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. [Google Scholar], p. 103). Thus, it was an opportune moment for astronomers to advocate for the mitigation of certain aspects of nighttime lighting. Around this time a paper was published in Science titled ‘Light Pollution: Outdoor lighting is a growing threat to astronomy’ (Riegel, 1973 Riegel, K. W. (1973). Light pollution: Outdoor lighting is a growing threat to astronomy. Science, 179, 1285–1291.10.1126/science.179.4080.1285[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]), which seemingly marks the academic acceptance and adoption of the concept. el macho Eron Plus eracto deseo Masculin Active VigRX eracto eracto Atlant Gel TestX Core