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For a comprehensive understanding of light pollution, contemporary discourse must be coupled with an exploration of the origins and emergence of the concept, which in turn requires a broad understanding of the development of urban nighttime lighting. Detailed historical studies into the technological innovations and social implications of artificial nighttime lighting have been published in the past few decades (e.g. Bowers, 1998 Bowers, B. (1998). Lengthening the day: A history of lighting technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]; Ekirch, 2005 Ekirch, R. A. (2005). At day’s close: Night in times past. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]; Isenstadt, Maile Petty, & Neumann, 2014 Isenstadt, S., Maile Petty, M., & Neumann, D. (Eds.). (2014). Cities of light: Two centuries of urban illumination. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]; Nye, 1990 Nye, D. E. (1990). Electrifying America: Social meanings of a new technology, 1880–1940. Cambridge: MIT Press. [Google Scholar]; Schivelbusch, 1988 Schivelbusch, W. (1988). Disenchanted night: The industrialization of light in the nineteenth century. (A. Davis, Trans.) London: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]). And, important studies on the social, economic, and legal aspects of nighttime lighting have also been published recently (e.g. Meier, Hasenöhrl, Krause, & Pottharst, 2014 Meier, J., Hasenöhrl, U., Krause, K., & Pottharst, M. (Eds.). (2014). Urban lighting, light pollution and society. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). The brief discussion below cannot do full justice to the in-depth explorations of nighttime lighting that these scholars have explored, nor to the various cultural and geographical nuances of historical developments in lighting. Rather, I would like to highlight the conditions within which light pollution arose, which puts us in a better position to assess our contemporary definition and ask how the framing of light pollution responds to the core problem discussed above. In particular, Sections 3.1 and 3.2 will highlight the shift away from how to light cities and, somewhat paradoxically, toward a desire for dark or natural nights. Put otherwise, Use dim red lights for night lights. Red light has the least power to shift circadian rhythm and suppress melatonin. Clarifications to the ambiguities discussed above will likely change alongside differences in geographies, cultures, and belief systems. The recent edited volume Cities of Light (Isenstadt et al., 2014 Isenstadt, S., Maile Petty, M., & Neumann, D. (Eds.). (2014). Cities of light: Two centuries of urban illumination. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]) provides a first overview of historic developments in nighttime illumination with respect to individual cities, a format that could be expanded to contemporary environmental debates. But regardless, if light pollution will be the frame through which regulations are established, anticipating value-level conflicts and ambiguities is important. We must clarify—or at the least debate—the normative foundations of light pollution before the framework becomes normalized and fades into the background of presuppositions informing nighttime lighting strategies. Some astronomers do not accept inflationary models and have proposed other possible solutions to the horizon problem. These include: scenarios in which the gravitational constant varies with time,5 the ‘ekpyrotic model’ which involves a cyclic universe,6 scenarios in which light takes ‘shortcuts’ through extra (hypothetical) dimensions,7 ‘null-singularity’ models,8 and models in which the speed of light was much greater in the past.9,10 (Creationists have also pointed out that a changing speed of light may solve light-travel–time difficulties for biblical creation.11) Measuring the effect of sky glow on a global scale is a complex procedure. The natural atmosphere is not completely dark, even in the absence of terrestrial sources of light and illumination from the Moon. This is caused by two main sources: airglow and scattered light. The same thing happened to me!! My camera has been sitting on a shelf for 1+ year and when I went to take a picture with the film I had in my camera and it worked but then when I chnaged the film packet thing for a new one it stopped working. The red light by the view finder was on I changed the batteries and the little orange lights by the lens are flashing. Please my fero pace home , exit, and option led light so I can’t enjoy my adroid phone in the night because i don’t see the option pads down my screen, could it be settings. A second important point is that by concentrating upon the very distant objects, the light travel time problem is not formulated properly, for the situation is far worse! Most treatments of the light travel time problem concentrate upon the question of how we can see objects more than 6,000 lt-yr away. Because most objects clearly visible to the naked eye are well within 6,000 lt-yr, they aren’t a problem in a recent creation. But while it is possible for us to see most of the naked eye stars and today, some millennia after the Creation Week, it would not have been possible for Adam to have seen any stars (other than the sun) for at least four years after his creation. The stars were made on Day Four, and Adam was made on Day Six. The nearest star after the sun is 4.3 lt-yr away, so Adam could not have seen even the closest star for more than four years, and then stars would have slowly winked in over the succeeding years. However, the stars could not have fulfilled their God ordained functions when Adam first saw them after Day Six. These functions include being used to mark seasons and the passage of time (we still do this today with the day, month, and year). The passage of the year and the seasons are reckoned by how the sun appears to move against the background stars as the earth orbits the sun. Absent these background stars, it would not be possible to determine the passage of the year and of the seasons. Therefore, to truly solve the light travel time problem, light from stars even a few light years away must have been visible only days after their creation (and it is likely that the light of all the astronomical objects reaching the earth today also reached the earth at this early time). Any realistic solution to the light travel time problem must explain how Adam could have seen any stars on the evening following Day Six. Once that issue is resolved, the light travel time problem for truly distant objects probably is solved as well. At any rate, we ought to properly formulate the light travel time problem in all discussions of this issue. Disadvantages of low pressure sodium lighting are that fixtures must usually be larger than competing fixtures, and that color cannot be distinguished, due to its emitting principally a single wavelength of light (see security lighting). Due to the substantial size of the lamp, particularly in higher wattages such as 135 W and 180 W, control of light emissions from low pressure sodium luminaires is more difficult. For applications requiring more precise direction of light (such as narrow roadways) the native lamp efficacy advantage of this lamp type is decreased and may be entirely lost compared to high pressure sodium lamps. Allegations that this also leads to higher amounts of light pollution from luminaires running these lamps arise principally because of older luminaires with poor shielding, still widely in use in the UK and in some other locations. Modern low-pressure sodium fixtures with better optics and full shielding, and the decreased skyglow impacts of yellow light preserve the luminous efficacy advantage of low-pressure sodium and result in most cases is less energy consumption and less visible light pollution. Unfortunately, due to continued lack of accurate information,[92] many lighting professionals continue to disparage low-pressure sodium, contributing to its decreased acceptance and specification in lighting standards and therefore its use. Another disadvantage of low-pressure sodium lamps is that some people find the characteristic yellow light very displeasing aesthetically.[citation needed] Eron Plus eracto eracto Masculin Active power up premium Zevs eracto Eron Plus vigrx Peruanisches Maca