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We design, install and maintain street lights on most public highways. See our street lighting policy [pdf, 80.71Kb] . Light pollution is a topic gaining importance and acceptance in environmental discourse. This concept provides a framework for categorizing the adverse effects of nighttime lighting, which advocacy groups and regulatory efforts are increasingly utilizing. However, the ethical significance of the concept has, thus far, received little critical reflection. In this paper, I analyze the moral implications of framing issues in nighttime lighting via the concept of light pollution. First, the moral and political importance of problem framing is discussed. Next, the origins and contemporary understandings of light pollution are presented. Finally, the normative limitations and practical ambiguities of light pollution are discussed, with the aim of strengthening the framework through which decisions about urban nighttime lighting strategies are increasingly approached. A second important point is that by concentrating upon the very distant objects, the light travel time problem is not formulated properly, for the situation is far worse! Most treatments of the light travel time problem concentrate upon the question of how we can see objects more than 6,000 lt-yr away. Because most objects clearly visible to the naked eye are well within 6,000 lt-yr, they aren’t a problem in a recent creation. But while it is possible for us to see most of the naked eye stars and today, some millennia after the Creation Week, it would not have been possible for Adam to have seen any stars (other than the sun) for at least four years after his creation. The stars were made on Day Four, and Adam was made on Day Six. The nearest star after the sun is 4.3 lt-yr away, so Adam could not have seen even the closest star for more than four years, and then stars would have slowly winked in over the succeeding years. However, the stars could not have fulfilled their God ordained functions when Adam first saw them after Day Six. These functions include being used to mark seasons and the passage of time (we still do this today with the day, month, and year). The passage of the year and the seasons are reckoned by how the sun appears to move against the background stars as the earth orbits the sun. Absent these background stars, it would not be possible to determine the passage of the year and of the seasons. Therefore, to truly solve the light travel time problem, light from stars even a few light years away must have been visible only days after their creation (and it is likely that the light of all the astronomical objects reaching the earth today also reached the earth at this early time). Any realistic solution to the light travel time problem must explain how Adam could have seen any stars on the evening following Day Six. Once that issue is resolved, the light travel time problem for truly distant objects probably is solved as well. At any rate, we ought to properly formulate the light travel time problem in all discussions of this issue. The Simons Cracking the Glass collaboration held a workshop on Oct 22-26, 2017 at Royaumont Abbey outside Paris, France. The intimate, focused workshop involved PIs, affillates, postdocs and students, with a goal of synthesizing progress, highlighting new discoveries with the potential to catalyze additional collaboration within the group, and coordinating future effort. Disputes are still common when deciding appropriate action; and differences in opinion over what light is considered reasonable, and who should be responsible, mean that negotiation must sometimes take place between parties. Where objective measurement is desired, light levels can be quantified by field measurement or mathematical modeling, with results typically displayed as an isophote map or light contour map. Authorities have also taken a variety of measures for dealing with light pollution, depending on the interests, beliefs and understandings of the society involved.[citation needed] Measures range from doing nothing at all, to implementing strict laws and regulations about how lights may be installed and used. Clarifications to the ambiguities discussed above will likely change alongside differences in geographies, cultures, and belief systems. The recent edited volume Cities of Light (Isenstadt et al., 2014 Isenstadt, S., Maile Petty, M., & Neumann, D. (Eds.). (2014). Cities of light: Two centuries of urban illumination. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]) provides a first overview of historic developments in nighttime illumination with respect to individual cities, a format that could be expanded to contemporary environmental debates. But regardless, if light pollution will be the frame through which regulations are established, anticipating value-level conflicts and ambiguities is important. We must clarify—or at the least debate—the normative foundations of light pollution before the framework becomes normalized and fades into the background of presuppositions informing nighttime lighting strategies. In June 2016, it was estimated that one third of the world’s population could no longer see the Milky Way, including 80% of Americans and 60% of Europeans. Singapore was found to be the most light-polluted country in the world.[32][28] Use the online Service Request below to report broken or damaged street lights. This will include damage to the street light pole and base, the wires, the light fixture itself as well as the cabinet utility box. An English journal has become alarmed at the relation of electricity to songbirds, which it maintains is closer than that of cats and fodder crops. How many of us, it asks, foresee that electricity may extirpate the songbird?…With the exception of the finches, all the English songbirds may be said to be insectivorous, and their diet consists chiefly of vast numbers of very small insects which they collect from the grass and herbs before the dew is dry. As the electric light is finding its way for street illumination into the country parts of England, these poor winged atoms are slain by thousands at each light every warm summer evening….The fear is expressed, that when England is lighted from one end to the other with electricity the song birds will die out from the failure of their food supply.[77] With this definition and sub-categorization, the use of light pollution as a framework for evaluating artificial nighttime lighting begins to come into focus. The undesired outputs of artificial nighttime lighting—be it any of the four broad types listed above—can then be considered in terms of effects. The consequences of light pollution are far reaching, and supporting research is often still at an early stage. However, the effects can likewise be subdivided into five broad categories: energy usage, ecology, health, safety, and the night sky. The past few decades have seen the first large-scale investigations of energy usage by artificial nighttime lighting, as well as its connection to economic costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The International Dark-Sky Association estimates that 22% of all energy in the USA is used for lighting, and of that around 8% is used for outdoor nighttime lighting (IDA, 2014 IDA. (2014). International Dark-Sky Association. International Dark-Sky Association. Retrieved 15 January, 2015, from https://darksky.org/ [Google Scholar]). Another recent study concluded that this number is closer to 6% (Gallaway, Olsen, & Mitchell, 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Such studies often focus not just on the amount of energy used for lighting, but specifically the amount of wasted light. A consistent estimate is that approximately 30% of outdoor lighting in the United States is wasted (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]; Henderson, 2010 Henderson, D. (2010). Valuing the stars: On the economics of light pollution. Environmental Philosophy, 7, 17–26.10.5840/envirophil2010712[Crossref] [Google Scholar]).77. By wasted, we can assume this percentage of lighting is deemed to fall within one (or more) of the categories listed above (skyglow, glare, light trespass, or clutter).View all notes This translates into roughly 73 million megawatt hours of ‘needlessly generated’ electricty, with an estimated annual cost of US$6.9 billion. Elimating this wasted light, in terms of CO2 reduction, is equivalent to removing 9.5 million cars from the road (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Similar estimates of wasted light in the European Union have predicted that the direct costs amount to €5.2 billion, or 23.5 billion kg of CO2 annually (Morgan-Taylor, 2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). Testogen TestX Core Testogen Masculin Active eracto Celuraid Muscle Tonus Fortis TestX Core power up premium Tonus Fortis

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