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Hartnett, J. 2003. A new cosmology: Solution to the starlight travel time problem. TJ 17, no. 2:98–102. Moving or removing street lights Requests to have a street light moved or removed must be put in writing. If you would like to request moving or removing a street light, please email or write to us at the address below.  In certain cases an over-illumination lighting technique may be needed. For example, indirect lighting is often used to obtain a “softer” look, since hard direct lighting is generally found less desirable for certain surfaces, such as skin. The indirect lighting method is perceived as more cozy and suits bars, restaurants and living quarters. It is also possible to block the direct lighting effect by adding softening filters or other solutions, though intensity will be reduced. Keep unnecessary lights off when going camping and staying in cottages because they can interfere with the health and the natural behavior of nocturnal animals like salamanders. However, using the definition of “light pollution” from some Italian regional bills (i.e., “every irradiance of artificial light outside competence areas and particularly upward the sky”) only full cutoff design prevents light pollution. The Italian Lombardy region, where only full cutoff design is allowed (Lombardy act no. 17/2000, promoted by Cielobuio-coordination for the protection of the night sky), in 2007 had the lowest per capita energy consumption for public lighting in Italy. The same legislation also imposes a minimum distance between street lamps of about four times their height, so full cut off street lamps are the best solution to reduce both light pollution and electrical power usage. Section 2 discusses the moral and political significance of framing problems, in relation to the novel environmental problem of excess artificial nighttime lighting in cities. Section 3 then analyzes the concept of light pollution in detail. Here, both the origins of the concept and its current manifestations are presented, in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of light pollution. Section 4 returns to the question of how light pollution frames concerns and possible responses, and discusses two interrelated questions: the potential limitations of the concept as a normative or prescriptive tool, and the ambiguities and inconsistencies in its practical application that require clarification. Thus, first steps are taken in dissecting the ethical significance of the concept of light pollution and the role it can play in addressing the adverse effects of artificial nighttime lighting. About 1.7 billion people or more than a fifth of the world’s population are without access to electricity and modern lighting. The problem is most severe in rural areas or on the fringes of cities. , however the extent to rural electrification varies widely from country to country.  For example, 90% of Africa is not served by grid electricity versus 20% of Mexico. In fact, some African countries, for example, Rwanda and Burundi have barely passed the 1% electrification threshold! The first monumental technical development in nighttime lighting came at the turn of the nineteenth century with gaslight. It was with the adoption and proliferation of public gaslight that the modern notion of the city at night began to emerge, and nights started to become definitively brighter. Gaslight was first demonstrated publically in 1807, in London, and over the next few decades it was quickly adopted across Europe and North America.33. For example, by 1823 London had nearly 40,000 gas lamps covering over 200 miles of streets (Ekirch, 2005 Ekirch, R. A. (2005). At day’s close: Night in times past. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]).View all notes Gaslight was seen as symbolic of modern progress; it reordered the chaos of nature into rational, scientific principles (Schivelbusch, 1988 Schivelbusch, W. (1988). Disenchanted night: The industrialization of light in the nineteenth century. (A. Davis, Trans.) London: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]). Turning night into day and lengthening the day were popular expressions of the time (Schivelbusch, 1988 Schivelbusch, W. (1988). Disenchanted night: The industrialization of light in the nineteenth century. (A. Davis, Trans.) London: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]), and with gaslight this became a technological possibility for the first time, not simply an ideal to strive for. People were shedding old habits and fears of the night, and increasingly staying out later for commercial and social reasons. Brox (2014 Brox, J. (2014). Out of the dark: A brief history of artificial light in outdoor spaces. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 13–29). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]) notes that by the mid-nineteenth century a new word came into use: nightlife. If blue light does have adverse health effects, then environmental concerns, and the quest for energy-efficient lighting, could be at odds with personal health. Those curlicue compact fluorescent lightbulbs and LED lights are much more energy-efficient than the old-fashioned incandescent lightbulbs we grew up with. But they also tend to produce more blue light. The Swiss Agency for Energy Efficiency (SAFE) uses a concept that promises to be of great use in the diagnosis and design of road lighting, “consommation électrique spécifique (CES)”, which can be translated into English as “specific electric power consumption (SEC)”.[99] Thus, based on observed lighting levels in a wide range of Swiss towns, SAFE has defined target values for electric power consumption per metre for roads of various categories. Thus, SAFE currently recommends an SEC of 2 to 3 watts per meter for roads of less than 10 metre width (4 to 6 watts per metre for wider roads). Such a measure provides an easily applicable environmental protection constraint on conventional “norms”, which usually are based on the recommendations of lighting manufacturing interests, who may not take into account environmental criteria. In view of ongoing progress in lighting technology, target SEC values will need to be periodically revised downwards. The two main reasons street lights stop working are: Lisle, J. 2010. Anisotropic synchrony convention—A solution to the distant starlight problem. Answers Research Journal 3:191–207. Retrieved from Hi, we had the same issue with the Instax mini 8 andblinking lights and we could not get out the casette, we solved* Hit to insert another list item, and twice in a row to end the list. To get subitems, repeat the bullet character once for each level of indent you want (e.g. **) this by using a sisser and knife.the problem is rhat the last picture was hanging and this was caused by the small silver item in the right corner when you open it. After we removed the last casette to put a new one in this silver item did not get back to the right corner but was about 1cm above.We solved this by putting the old empty casette in it, pushed the button to make a picture and then removed the old casette again, now it was solved , the silver item was back in the right corner again and after installing a new casette it was working perfectly again But we may be paying a price for basking in all that light. At night, light throws the body’s biological clock—the circadian rhythm—out of whack. Sleep suffers. Worse, research shows that it may contribute to the causation of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. A change in the speed of light would quite literally end the world as we know it. The speed of light is not an arbitrary speed with no effect on outside systems, but is in fact a component in one of the most fundamental equations in the universe[6], the equation for matter: E = mc2 where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light in a vacuum.[7] This means that any increase of the speed of light would in turn increase the amount of energy released by the reactions of matter. Because the Sun, or indeed any star, relies on the reactions of matter, most notably nuclear fusion, a change in the speed of light would alter its energy output; if light were traveling as fast as some creationists demand, then the energy output of the Sun could be expected to increase over 800,000,000 times.[8][9] Celuraid Muscle Erozon Max eracto BeMass Testo Ultra erogan erozon max Atlant Gel TestX Core VigRX