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In addition to skyglow, light trespass can impact observations when artificial light directly enters the tube of the telescope and is reflected from non-optical surfaces until it eventually reaches the eyepiece. This direct form of light pollution causes a glow across the field of view which reduces contrast. Light trespass also makes it hard for a visual observer to become sufficiently dark adapted. The usual measures to reduce this glare, if reducing the light directly is not an option, include flocking the telescope tube and accessories to reduce reflection, and putting a light shield (also usable as a dew shield) on the telescope to reduce light entering from angles other than those near the target. Under these conditions, some astronomers prefer to observe under a black cloth to ensure maximum dark adaptation. In one Italian regional lighting code this effect of stray light is defined as “optical pollution”[citation needed], due to the fact that there is a direct path from the light source to the “optic” – the observer’s eye or telescope. The Swiss Agency for Energy Efficiency (SAFE) uses a concept that promises to be of great use in the diagnosis and design of road lighting, “consommation électrique spécifique (CES)”, which can be translated into English as “specific electric power consumption (SEC)”.[99] Thus, based on observed lighting levels in a wide range of Swiss towns, SAFE has defined target values for electric power consumption per metre for roads of various categories. Thus, SAFE currently recommends an SEC of 2 to 3 watts per meter for roads of less than 10 metre width (4 to 6 watts per metre for wider roads). Such a measure provides an easily applicable environmental protection constraint on conventional “norms”, which usually are based on the recommendations of lighting manufacturing interests, who may not take into account environmental criteria. In view of ongoing progress in lighting technology, target SEC values will need to be periodically revised downwards. The first solution of type number six is the white hole cosmology (Humphreys 1994). The white hole cosmology posits that God initially made the universe as a white hole with the earth somewhere near the center of the white hole. The white hole eventually evaporated and ceased to exist during the Creation Week, probably on Day Four. Relativistic time dilation near the event horizon of the white hole allowed for great periods of time to pass elsewhere in much of the universe while only days elapsed on and near the earth. The much greater time elsewhere would allow light from the most distant portions of the universe to reach the earth in just days. Hartnett (2003) has pursued a somewhat similar yet very different solution by using a modified metric for general relativity. This metric has an additional dimension (for a total of five). He has acquired some very interesting results when applied to large structures, such as galaxies and quasars, suggesting that today we are seeing these objects in their infancy, despite their tremendous distances and consequent light travel times. The general relativity solutions have gained much following, but admittedly many supporters do not fully understand the sophisticated mathematics involved. Keep unnecessary lights off when going camping and staying in cottages because they can interfere with the health and the natural behavior of nocturnal animals like salamanders. Light pollution competes with starlight in the night sky for urban residents, interferes with astronomical observatories,[5] and, like any other form of pollution, disrupts ecosystems and has adverse health effects[6][7] We aim to fix streetlights within 28 working days. If it can’t be fixed on the first visit, we may need to order extra parts and the repair will be planned as soon as possible. Before buying an LED bulb you could check the specifications to see if it compatible with any type of dimmer switch. Most are not. Also since LED bulbs as so new (for residential lighting) there are not yet many standards followed for their operation. Some specialty LED bulbs are beginning to become available with dimming systems specially design for that type of bulb. In addition to turning on the light—known as the International Check Engine Symbol—the computer stores a “trouble code” in its memory that identifies the source of the problem, such as a malfunctioning sensor or a misfiring engine. The code can be read with an electronic scan tool or a diagnostic computer—standard equipment in auto repair shops. There are also a number of relatively inexpensive code readers that are designed for do-it-yourselfers. Light pollution has emerged as the widely accepted term for the negative or adverse effects of artificial nighttime illumination (Hölker et al., 2010 Hölker, F., Moss, T., Griefahn, B., Kloas, W., Voigt, C., Henckel, D., … Tockner, K. (2010). The dark side of light: A transdisciplinary research agenda for light pollution policy. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 13.10.5751/ES-03685-150413[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). A central assumption of this paper is that the concept of light pollution—due to its increasing usage within professional, academic, and popular discourse—will substantially shape decisions about how to illuminate cities in the twenty-first century. In this role, it will actively inform the conditions for morally acceptable and desirable artificial nighttime illumination. Thus, to a large extent the concept of light pollution helps to provide a framing that addresses our new problem. This, however, necessitates an evaluation of the concept’s usefulness—its strengths and limitations. Its increasing usage must be coupled with critical reflection, if it is to offer an effective framing for ongoing policy efforts. In Policy Paradox, Stone (2002 Stone, D. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]) discusses the complex issue of defining problems within political discourse. It is never an objective statement, but rather a strategic representation from one point of view that will promote a certain course of action. While problem definitions can act as a ‘… vehicle for expressing moral values … there is no universal technical language of problem definition that yields morally correct answers’ (p. 134). Nonetheless, focusing on how a problem is defined can help us see the situation from multiple perspectives and identify assumptions about facts and values embedded therein (Stone, 2002 Stone, D. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]). This can, in turn, help to strengthen the problem definition. If the light is steady, the problem is not an emergency, but you should schedule an appointment as soon as possible. Today’s automotive computers often try to compensate when there’s a problem, so you might not notice deterioration in performance, even though your fuel mileage might be suffering and your vehicle emitting unacceptable levels of hydrocarbons and other pollutants. If the street light is on the M4, A470 or A465 (Heads of the Valleys road) please contact Traffic Wales on 0845 602 6020. If you are reporting problems with temporary traffic lights, please provide relevant contact details where possible. Any scarcity of urban nighttime illumination was quickly diminishing as electrification spread across North American and Europe during the twentieth century, developing alongside urbanization and the growth of transportation networks (Isenstadt, 2014 Isenstadt, S. (2014). Good night. Places Journal. Retrieved 22 October, 2014, from[Crossref] [Google Scholar]). This proliferation of nighttime illumination has been continuous to the present day, save for two major disruptions: World War Two and the energy crisis of the 1970s. However, nighttime illumination efforts quickly resumed shortly after both of these events (Neumann, 2002b Neumann, D. (2002b). Architectural illumination since World War II. In D. Neumann (Ed.), Architecture of the night: The illuminated building (pp. 78–84). New York, NY: Prestel. [Google Scholar]). Current estimates are that artificial nighttime lighting continues to increase globally by about 3–6% annually (Hölker et al., 2010 Hölker, F., Moss, T., Griefahn, B., Kloas, W., Voigt, C., Henckel, D., … Tockner, K. (2010). The dark side of light: A transdisciplinary research agenda for light pollution policy. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 13.10.5751/ES-03685-150413[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). This has been, in many ways, the ultimate realization of values strived for since the seventeenth century. A lengthening of the day has effectively been achieved, creating unmistakably modern nights where the various facets of nightlife can occur, and where many daytime activities can continue well into the night. But this has come with unintended consequences. In his exploration of ‘the world after dark’, Dewdney (2004 Dewdney, C. (2004). Acquainted with the night: Excursions through the world after dark. Toronto: HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. [Google Scholar], p. 101) cleverly evaluates the two-sided nature of this achievement, stating, Testogen deseo Tonus Fortis erogan Erozon Max vigrx TestX Core Stéroïdes eracto Tonus Fortis