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In North America the situation is comparable. There is a significant problem with light pollution ranging from the Canadian Maritime Provinces to the American Southwest.[28] The International Dark-Sky Association works to designate areas that have high quality night skies. These areas are supported by communities and organizations that are dedicated to reducing light pollution (e.g.Dark-sky preserve). The National Park Service Natural Sounds and Night Skies Division has measured night sky quality in national park units across the U.S. Sky quality in the U.S. ranges from pristine (Capitol Reef National Park and Big Bend National Park) to severely degraded (Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area and Biscayne National Park).[29] The National Park Service Night Sky Program monitoring database is available online (2015).[30] If the check engine light illuminates, it will either blink or remain constantly illuminated, depending on the problem. A blinking light, or in some cars a red light instead of a yellow or orange light, indicates a problem that needs immediate attention. Either way, you should have the vehicle checked by a mechanic.  4. Neumann’s’ Architecture of the Night (2002a Neumann, D. (Ed.). (2002a). Architecture of the night: The illuminated building. New York, NY: Prestel. [Google Scholar]) is arguably the most important recent study of nighttime illumination in architectural history and theory, linking the history of nighttime lighting with the history of modern architecture. Neumann mainly focuses on the esthetic and expressive qualities of ‘illuminated buildings’ throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, providing the first comprehensive catalogue of relevant architectural projects. Light pollution is the adding-of/added light itself, in analogy to added sound, carbon dioxide, etc. Adverse consequences are multiple; some of them may not be known yet. Scientific definitions thus include the following: The 350 year project of illuminating our nights has produced a challenging situation. The desire for more and better lighting at night has left us with an overabundance of artificial illumination, and has produced a novel problem. The realization of lengthening the day is increasingly perceived as a loss of the night, and a new frame has emerged to give shape to these concerns. The story of light pollution goes back much further than the 1970s, in juxtaposition but nevertheless linked to the technical and social history of modern nighttime illumination. Importantly, the concept of light pollution re-frames certain aspects and uses of nighttime lighting technologies. If we return once more to the driving question (how much artificial light at night is appropriate?), we can appreciate that the concept of light pollution provides a new starting point, and not an end point, for discussions about the future of nighttime lighting.1010. I would like to thank the anonymous reviewer for this insight.View all notes About 1.7 billion people or more than a fifth of the world’s population are without access to electricity and modern lighting. The problem is most severe in rural areas or on the fringes of cities. , however the extent to rural electrification varies widely from country to country.  For example, 90% of Africa is not served by grid electricity versus 20% of Mexico. In fact, some African countries, for example, Rwanda and Burundi have barely passed the 1% electrification threshold! The Dark-Sky Association was started to reduce the light going up into the sky which reduces visibility of stars (see Skyglow below). This is any light which is emitted more than 90° above nadir. By limiting light at this 90° mark they have also reduced the light output in the 80–90° range which creates most of the light trespass issues. Such a question may not strike you as entirely novel or revolutionary, as surely such questions are as old as attempts to illuminate our nights. But, the context in which this question is posed—the growing recognition of environmental and health-related problems caused or amplified by nighttime lighting—gives it new meaning. We are now seeking a transition in nighttime lighting strategies toward reducing the amount of illumination. And, it has been acknowledged that traditional approaches have been ineffective to date. Kyba, Hänel, and Hölker (2014 Kyba, C., Hänel, A., & Hölker, F. (2014). Redefining efficiency for outdoor lighting. Energy & Environmental Science, 7, 1806–1809.10.1039/C4EE00566J[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) note that despite improvements to efficiency in lighting technologies, energy usage for outdoor lighting and artificial nighttime brightness continues to increase annually. Thus, a complete conversion to efficient lighting technologies alone (i.e. LEDs) is unlikely to reduce energy consumption or other unwanted consequences; new approaches to nighttime lighting must look beyond the narrow focus of improving efficiency. They summarize this necessary change in perspective by stating that, You can also report your lighting problem by providing your account number and the ZIP Code associated with your account, then clicking Next. My camera does nothing, none of the lights are working. I cant take photos. I tried changing the batteries but it doesn’t help. Anyone who know what to do? To report emergency problems with a street light, contact us Monday to Friday 8am to 5pm on 0845 601 0939, or outside these hours phone 0845 795 9639 It happens because the nature of a TV or radio debate is increasingly binary and confrontational, and because getting people to argue with each other makes for better “box office” than exposing them to equal levels of proper scrutiny. The presenter thus becomes a referee rather than a tribune for the viewers and listeners: if they point out a flaw in one person’s argument, they must then point out a flaw in the other’s or be accused of bias; if they employ knowledge to challenge false assertions, they are pursuing their own “agenda”. It has led us into an age of boundless heat but very little light and seen a veneration of dangerous, divisive stupidity move squarely into the media and political mainstream. A more recent discussion (2009), written by Professor Steven Lockley, Harvard Medical School, can be found in the CfDS handbook “Blinded by the Light?”.[50] Chapter 4, “Human health implications of light pollution” states that “… light intrusion, even if dim, is likely to have measurable effects on sleep disruption and melatonin suppression. Even if these effects are relatively small from night to night, continuous chronic circadian, sleep and hormonal disruption may have longer-term health risks”. The New York Academy of Sciences hosted a meeting in 2009 on Circadian Disruption and Cancer.[51] Red light suppresses melatonin the least.[52] Studies suggest that light pollution around lakes prevents zooplankton, such as Daphnia, from eating surface algae, causing algal blooms that can kill off the lakes’ plants and lower water quality.[55] Light pollution may also affect ecosystems in other ways. For example, lepidopterists and entomologists have documented that nighttime light may interfere with the ability of moths and other nocturnal insects to navigate.[56] Night-blooming flowers that depend on moths for pollination may be affected by night lighting, as there is no replacement pollinator that would not be affected by the artificial light. This can lead to species decline of plants that are unable to reproduce, and change an area’s longterm ecology.[57] Among nocturnal insects, fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae, Phengodidae e Elateridae) are especially interesting study objects for light pollution, once they depend on their own light to reproduce and, consequently, are very sensitive to environmental levels of light.[58][59][60] In 2015 it was shown and quantified for the first time the negative effects of direct illumination on fireflies, in a study that monitored populations over four years.[61] Fireflies are charismatic [62] (which is a rare quality among insects) and are easily spotted by nonexperts, providing thus good flagship species to attract public attention;[61] good investigation models for the effects of light on nocturnal wildlife;[61] and finally, due to their sensibility and rapid response to environmental changes, good bioindicators for artificial night lighting.[63] Street light According to the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA), “Outdoor lighting with high blue light content is more likely to contribute to light pollution because it has a significantly larger geographic reach than lighting with less blue light. Blue-rich white light sources are also known to increase glare and compromise human vision. And in natural settings, blue light at night has been shown to adversely affect wildlife behavior and reproduction.” Zevs Zevs BioBelt erozon max VigRX Plus power up premium Testo Ultra BeMass Zevs BioBelt

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