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So while the fascination and allure of illuminations persist, darkness is today increasingly perceived as a rare and valuable commodity. This development could be regarded as a double paradigm shift from the dark night as a forbidding everyday occurrence that could only be lit up sporadically to its devaluation as an emblem of backwardness in the face of a new abundance of artificial light in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to its present valorization as a sought-after luxury in our densely populated and highly electrified world. (Hasenöhrl, 2014 Hasenöhrl, U. (2014). Lighting conflicts from a historical perspective. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution, and society (pp. 105–124). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar], p. 119) With our novel question in mind, we must then ask how the concept of light pollution frames current challenges and associated ethical questions, and what actions it will guide us toward. However, it is pertinent to first clarify the notion of ‘framing’. Here, I use the term broadly to describe the conceptual lens through which problems will be defined and perceived, and through which solutions will be posed. Frames are helpful in crystallizing and formulating a problem, but in doing so also set the boundaries of possibility on potential solutions. In Frame Innovation (2015 Dorst, K. (2015). Frame innovation: Create new thinking by design. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar]), Dorst explains a method of design thinking used to overcome seemingly intractable real-world problems, dubbed the ‘frame creation model’. Building on the linguistic research of Lakoff and Johnson (1980 Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We live by. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]), Dorst explains that frames may be simple phrases, but in reality are subtle and complex thought tools. ‘Proposing a frame includes the use of certain concepts, which are assigned significance and meaning. These concepts are not neutral at all: they will steer explorations and perceptions in the process of creation’ (2015 Dorst, K. (2015). Frame innovation: Create new thinking by design. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar], p. 63). A good frame should be inspiring, original, robust, and create a common space for finding solutions. And once accepted, a frame will define the parameters of possibility. ‘Once frames are accepted, they become the context for routine behavior: once accepted, the frame immediately begins to fade. Statements that started life as original frames become limiting rationalities in themselves, holding back new developments’ (Dorst, 2015 Dorst, K. (2015). Frame innovation: Create new thinking by design. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar], p. 65). If the light bulb does not light up at all, follow this troubleshooting procedure: 3) When just removing the 16th bulb, there is no light at all. The IDA, founded 30 years ago, gathers and disseminates light-pollution information and solutions. It has played a pivotal role in turning the tide in the light-pollution war. The IDA is winning over key sectors of the nonastronomical public — including government groups, sections of the lighting industry and electric utilities — arguing that good lighting for astronomers equals energy savings and more attractive surroundings for everyone else. There are almost 90,000 City-owned street lights in Calgary. The City has a maintenance contract with Enmax Power Services to investigate concerns and repair street lights. Of course, it must be remembered that the aforementioned biblical references to the stretching of the heavens appear in poetic passages that are unlike the record of Day Four in Genesis 1:14–19, which bears all the markings of prose (Boyd 2005). Consequently, “stretching” in these instances may be a metaphorical device that refers to nothing more than the creation of the heavens in their expanse. In other words, the language employed is likely not specific enough to enlist as certain evidence for the defense of my view. Nevertheless, the language surely does not preclude the position I have advanced; indeed, if the text does intend to convey the idea of light travelling at an abnormally accelerated rate in order to reach the earth on Day Four (or, at the very latest, Day Six), then reference to God stretching out the heavens is quite appropriate. According to Mario Motta, president of the Massachusetts Medical Society, “… glare from bad lighting is a public-health hazard—especially the older you become. Glare light scattering in the eye causes loss of contrast and leads to unsafe driving conditions, much like the glare on a dirty windshield from low-angle sunlight or the high beams from an oncoming car.”[25] In essence bright and/or badly shielded lights around roads can partially blind drivers or pedestrians and contribute to accidents. If you are reporting a hazardous condition (other than a malfunctioning light) DO NOT use this form. Please call 1-800-4OUTAGE (1-800-468-8243) to report the condition. Unless your car starts smoking or stalls completely head over to an auto parts store and have them run a diagnostic to find the cause of the check engine light. Call ahead and make sure they can handle your make and model, since some cars have special computers. Once you’re at the store, they’ll come out and plug a small computer underneath your dashboard and read back a code stating what happened to the car. The IDA, founded 30 years ago, gathers and disseminates light-pollution information and solutions. It has played a pivotal role in turning the tide in the light-pollution war. The IDA is winning over key sectors of the nonastronomical public — including government groups, sections of the lighting industry and electric utilities — arguing that good lighting for astronomers equals energy savings and more attractive surroundings for everyone else. To report a streetlight that’s out or malfunctioning, complete the form below (*Required). CarMD published a list of the five most common Check Engine light codes in 2010 and estimated cost of repair. In order of frequency, they are: Light pollution has emerged as the widely accepted term for the negative or adverse effects of artificial nighttime illumination (Hölker et al., 2010 Hölker, F., Moss, T., Griefahn, B., Kloas, W., Voigt, C., Henckel, D., … Tockner, K. (2010). The dark side of light: A transdisciplinary research agenda for light pollution policy. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 13.10.5751/ES-03685-150413[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). A central assumption of this paper is that the concept of light pollution—due to its increasing usage within professional, academic, and popular discourse—will substantially shape decisions about how to illuminate cities in the twenty-first century. In this role, it will actively inform the conditions for morally acceptable and desirable artificial nighttime illumination. Thus, to a large extent the concept of light pollution helps to provide a framing that addresses our new problem. This, however, necessitates an evaluation of the concept’s usefulness—its strengths and limitations. Its increasing usage must be coupled with critical reflection, if it is to offer an effective framing for ongoing policy efforts. In Policy Paradox, Stone (2002 Stone, D. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]) discusses the complex issue of defining problems within political discourse. It is never an objective statement, but rather a strategic representation from one point of view that will promote a certain course of action. While problem definitions can act as a ‘… vehicle for expressing moral values … there is no universal technical language of problem definition that yields morally correct answers’ (p. 134). Nonetheless, focusing on how a problem is defined can help us see the situation from multiple perspectives and identify assumptions about facts and values embedded therein (Stone, 2002 Stone, D. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]). This can, in turn, help to strengthen the problem definition. The street lights on motorways and trunk roads are looked after by the Highways Agency, so any faults should be reported using their helpline (0300 123 5000). Masculin Active Testogen Tonus Fortis BeMass el macho power up premium Maca du Pérou power up premium power up premium TestX Core

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