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Light pollution is the adding-of/added light itself, in analogy to added sound, carbon dioxide, etc. Adverse consequences are multiple; some of them may not be known yet. Scientific definitions thus include the following: Clarifications to the ambiguities discussed above will likely change alongside differences in geographies, cultures, and belief systems. The recent edited volume Cities of Light (Isenstadt et al., 2014 Isenstadt, S., Maile Petty, M., & Neumann, D. (Eds.). (2014). Cities of light: Two centuries of urban illumination. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]) provides a first overview of historic developments in nighttime illumination with respect to individual cities, a format that could be expanded to contemporary environmental debates. But regardless, if light pollution will be the frame through which regulations are established, anticipating value-level conflicts and ambiguities is important. We must clarify—or at the least debate—the normative foundations of light pollution before the framework becomes normalized and fades into the background of presuppositions informing nighttime lighting strategies. To report an outdoor light or street light problem, just call your local Gibson EMC member service center or our 24-hour dispatch center at 1-731-855-4740. Please be sure to tell us that you are calling about an outdoor light or a street light and provide the light’s location. We will make the needed repairs as quickly as possible. Nicholas Nickleby was a campaigning novel highlighting the brutality of these schools to an ignorant or compliant society, which ultimately resulted in the schools’ demise. Today, Dotheboys Hall is filled with children being children, innocent fun and mischief, blissfully ignorant of Dotheboys’ past. The parallels between Nicholas Nickleby and modern-day campaigning journalism should not be lost. Sean Webb Dotheboys Hall Bowes, Co Durham A common criticism of full cutoff lighting fixtures is that they are sometimes not as aesthetically pleasing to look at. This is most likely because historically there has not been a large market specifically for full cutoff fixtures, and because people typically like to see the source of illumination. Due to the specificity with their direction of light, full cutoff fixtures sometimes also require expertise to install for maximum effect. Light pollution is the excessive or misdirected outdoor lighting that is threatening to destroy virtually all casual stargazing. Throughout much of the United States, for instance, millions upon millions of precious watts are wasted because poorly designed streetlamps send a portion of their light into the sky. But it’s not just stargazers who need to be concerned. While some may scoff at preserving the beauty of the night sky, there are other facets of light pollution that have a direct impact on all of us. Here are just a few examples: If a street light is shining into your property and causing you a problem, we may be able to adjust the light to fix the problem. If this does not work, we can try other things such as fitting a screen or shield to blank out part of the light, however there may be a charge for this if we have not made any recent changes. Medical research on the effects of excessive light on the human body suggests that a variety of adverse health effects may be caused by light pollution or excessive light exposure, and some lighting design textbooks[34] use human health as an explicit criterion for proper interior lighting. Health effects of over-illumination or improper spectral composition of light may include: increased headache incidence, worker fatigue, medically defined stress, decrease in sexual function and increase in anxiety.[35][36][37][38] Likewise, animal models have been studied demonstrating unavoidable light to produce adverse effect on mood and anxiety.[39] For those who need to be awake at night, light at night also has an acute effect on alertness and mood.[40] If there is a problem with the electricity supply, we will need to inform the electricity supplier and could take more time to fix the light. 7. By wasted, we can assume this percentage of lighting is deemed to fall within one (or more) of the categories listed above (skyglow, glare, light trespass, or clutter). A side note here: I grew up in the Throgs Neck section of the Bronx, and during the 1960s, I could see quite a bit of the night sky from my backyard. But today, the city has gotten brighter. Much brighter. So bright, in fact, that now I can easily read a newspaper at night near my childhood stomping grounds without a flashlight. And the skies at my old Adirondack campsite have gotten noticeably brighter, too. What was once a sea of stars against a pitch-black background now looks more like a shade of charcoal gray. Today I ended up checking everyones tail lights out in the parking lot. It all started when Kristin ask for help in repairing her inoperative brake likes. After fixing those we checked out all the lights on Kaias wagon and then my wife, Linda, drove in in her 1993 300D, so I decided to check those as well. Hartnett, J. 2003. A new cosmology: Solution to the starlight travel time problem. TJ 17, no. 2:98–102. The Swiss Agency for Energy Efficiency (SAFE) uses a concept that promises to be of great use in the diagnosis and design of road lighting, “consommation électrique spécifique (CES)”, which can be translated into English as “specific electric power consumption (SEC)”.[99] Thus, based on observed lighting levels in a wide range of Swiss towns, SAFE has defined target values for electric power consumption per metre for roads of various categories. Thus, SAFE currently recommends an SEC of 2 to 3 watts per meter for roads of less than 10 metre width (4 to 6 watts per metre for wider roads). Such a measure provides an easily applicable environmental protection constraint on conventional “norms”, which usually are based on the recommendations of lighting manufacturing interests, who may not take into account environmental criteria. In view of ongoing progress in lighting technology, target SEC values will need to be periodically revised downwards. In late-model cars, a blinking light usually indicates an engine misfire so severe that unburned fuel is being dumped into the exhaust system, where it can quickly damage the catalytic converter, leading to an expensive repair. If that happens, you should reduce power and have the car or truck looked at as soon as possible. Check Engine lights come in orange, yellow or amber, depending on the manufacturer. If the light begins flashing, however, it indicates a more serious problem, such as a misfire that can quickly overheat the catalytic converter. These emissions devices operate at high temperatures to cut emissions, but can pose a fire hazard if faulty. Lisle, J. 2010. Anisotropic synchrony convention—A solution to the distant starlight problem. Answers Research Journal 3:191–207. Retrieved from http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/arj/v3/n1/anisotropic-synchrony-convention. The furthest objects visible, quasars, have been detected 13 billion light years away.[1] After allowing for the metric expansion of space,[2] this puts the lower limit of the age of the universe at near 13 billion years.[3] The methods of measuring distances to the billions of light years are rather complicated, but there are direct measurements well beyond the limits of YEC, using only parallax. There are the measurements of the supernova SN1987A at about 168,000 light years, and the Gaia space mission should obtain many distances of objects up to about 30,000 light years.[4] We’re converting many of our street lights to energy-efficient Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology. Read more about our LED street lighting project. The first step, though, is to diagnose the problem. How you do this will depend somewhat on the type of light fixture and the symptoms you observe.  CarMD isn’t alone in the code-reader market. An Internet search will bring up countless devices, some costing as little as $40. Most come with a booklet listing the codes, but it is also easy to do a Google search to locate the codes. Aamco will check the Check Engine light for free and provides a fact sheet. Penigen 500 BeMass Penigen 500 Zevs Maxman Tonus Fortis Masculin Active Masculin Active Testogen power up premium

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