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With minimal alternatives for lighting, parents and children from rural areas in developing countries are often caught in the cycle of poverty. In particular, fuel-based lighting (kerosene) is expensive, dangerous and unhealthy while providing poor illumination and contributing to carbon emissions. Human health:According to an article published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, several studies over the past two decades have suggested that the modern practice of keeping our bodies exposed to artificial light at night increases cancer risk, especially for cancers that require hormones to grow, such as breast and prostate cancers. Use dimmer switches on household lights or use candles. At night, use dimmer switches in your home to reduce unnecessary lighting, or try using candles if you want to reduce your light pollution even further, and to encourage your own body’s winding down for the night. You might find that you like the effects, and appreciate the increased restful sleep of your entire family! Also, if possible, consider eliminating your use of electronics a couple of hours before you go to bed to eliminate the blue light that such devices often emanate that may negatively impact your body’s own melatonin production. Please note that the selected light will not change colour once reported. In 1964/5, Penzias and Wilson discovered that the earth was bathed in a faint microwave radiation, apparently coming from the most distant observable regions of the universe, and this earned them the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1978.1 This Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) comes from all directions in space and has a characteristic temperature.2,3 While the discovery of the CMB has been called a successful prediction of the big bang model,4 it is actually a problem for the big bang. This is because the precisely uniform temperature of the CMB creates a light-travel–time problem for big bang models of the origin of the universe. A more recent discussion (2009), written by Professor Steven Lockley, Harvard Medical School, can be found in the CfDS handbook “Blinded by the Light?”.[50] Chapter 4, “Human health implications of light pollution” states that “… light intrusion, even if dim, is likely to have measurable effects on sleep disruption and melatonin suppression. Even if these effects are relatively small from night to night, continuous chronic circadian, sleep and hormonal disruption may have longer-term health risks”. The New York Academy of Sciences hosted a meeting in 2009 on Circadian Disruption and Cancer.[51] Red light suppresses melatonin the least.[52] I have outwalked the furthest city light, ends the first stanza of Robert Frost’s poem ‘Acquainted with the Night’. For many contemporary urban dwellers, such a feat is becoming exceedingly difficult in our electrified, 24 h societies. While artificial nighttime illumination has brought with it many advances and possibilities, the negative consequences of its ubiquity and proliferation have only recently emerged as a topic of inquiry. Discourse is increasingly framing concerns about nighttime lighting via the concept of light pollution, particularly with respect to environmental effects. However, light pollution has received relatively little attention compared to other environmental problems, remaining scientifically and culturally ‘in the dark’ (Hölker et al., 2010 Hölker, F., Moss, T., Griefahn, B., Kloas, W., Voigt, C., Henckel, D., … Tockner, K. (2010). The dark side of light: A transdisciplinary research agenda for light pollution policy. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 13.10.5751/ES-03685-150413[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Equally important, the framing of environmental problems caused by artificial nighttime lighting via the concept of light pollution has received little critical attention. Understandings of light pollution are reliant on seemingly technical descriptions—light pollution is used to categorize and quantify the adverse effects of artificial nighttime illumination. But such a categorization carries an implicit normative judgment, and should not be accepted without critical reflection. All of this can be traced to one thing: the curse of light pollution.  The 350 year project of illuminating our nights has produced a challenging situation. The desire for more and better lighting at night has left us with an overabundance of artificial illumination, and has produced a novel problem. The realization of lengthening the day is increasingly perceived as a loss of the night, and a new frame has emerged to give shape to these concerns. The story of light pollution goes back much further than the 1970s, in juxtaposition but nevertheless linked to the technical and social history of modern nighttime illumination. Importantly, the concept of light pollution re-frames certain aspects and uses of nighttime lighting technologies. If we return once more to the driving question (how much artificial light at night is appropriate?), we can appreciate that the concept of light pollution provides a new starting point, and not an end point, for discussions about the future of nighttime lighting.1010. I would like to thank the anonymous reviewer for this insight.View all notes LED in any mobile cell phone is an electronic component or part that generates light in the Mobile Phone. These are generally LED or Light Emitting Diode. There are 2 types of connection in the Light Section of a Mobile Phone: (i) Series Connection; and (ii) Parallel Connection. The third solution is not much discussed anymore. It relied upon some speculative hypothesis about the nature of light that has never been demonstrated. Very few creationists embraced this solution anyway, and those who once did mention this solution normally offered it as a hypothetical possibility not necessarily with endorsement. For a critical discussion of this theory, please see Akridge (1984). The street lighting service provides and maintains the majority of the 26,000 streetlights and 4,000 lit signs and bollards throughout Warrington. Steve Mazor, the Auto Club of Southern California’s chief automotive engineer, says that while some people freak out when they see the Check Engine light, “others just put a piece of black tape over it and keep driving.” Mazor says it’s important to promptly address problems indicated by the light. Ignoring them could lead to larger, more costly problems later. If you are reporting a hazardous condition (other than a malfunctioning light) DO NOT use this form. Please call 1-800-4OUTAGE (1-800-468-8243) to report the condition. Gaslight was followed by the invention of electric lighting in the latter half of the nineteenth century—the most profound technological development in lighting, and arguably one of the most important developments of modern infrastructure. Figuratively, electric lighting became synonymous with—and symbolic of—modern progress. For a Russian poet visiting New York City in the 1920s, the bright electric lights were perceived as modernity’s very medium (Isenstadt, 2014 Isenstadt, S. (2014). Good night. Places Journal. Retrieved 22 October, 2014, from https://placesjournal.org/article/good-night/[Crossref] [Google Scholar]). Aided by various technical advances, for example, floodlights, electric lighting quickly became a ‘sophisticated cultural apparatus’ that could be used for advertising, commemorating history, expressing civic pride, highlighting monuments, etc. (Nye, 1990 Nye, D. E. (1990). Electrifying America: Social meanings of a new technology, 1880–1940. Cambridge: MIT Press. [Google Scholar], p. 73). Via electrification, artificial nighttime lighting became, and remains, a prolific technological artifact capable of esthetic and ideological expression well beyond functional requirements.44. Neumann’s’ Architecture of the Night (2002a Neumann, D. (Ed.). (2002a). Architecture of the night: The illuminated building. New York, NY: Prestel. [Google Scholar]) is arguably the most important recent study of nighttime illumination in architectural history and theory, linking the history of nighttime lighting with the history of modern architecture. Neumann mainly focuses on the esthetic and expressive qualities of ‘illuminated buildings’ throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, providing the first comprehensive catalogue of relevant architectural projects.View all notes Creating a coherent and effective frame for the challenges of nighttime lighting carries its own idiosyncratic considerations. Beyond functionality, the symbolic meanings of lighting technologies have played an active role in determining their uses and acceptance (Nye, 2006 Nye, D. E. (2006). Technology matters: Questions to live with. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar]). Throughout history, perceptions of nighttime lighting have consistently blurred the literal and the symbolic; intertwined actual lighting with metaphorical notions of the values that lighting embodies (Schivelbusch, 1988 Schivelbusch, W. (1988). Disenchanted night: The industrialization of light in the nineteenth century. (A. Davis, Trans.) London: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]). This is not entirely surprising, as metaphors are pervasive in our everyday language (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980 Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We live by. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]) and politics (Stone, 2002 Stone, D. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]). A metaphorical concept allows us to see one thing in terms of another—in this case, to see some outputs of artificial lighting as a ‘pollutant’ of the night sky, our bodies, and ecosystems. Like sound pollution, it is a powerful framing that will shape how we think, speak, and act with regards to nighttime lighting technologies. Conceptual metaphors are useful but also can be troublesome, because Zevs Tonus Fortis eracto Masculin Active machoman Anabolic Rx24 VigRX Plus Testogen Maca du Pérou Atlant Gel