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In the night, the polarization of the moonlit sky is very strongly reduced in the presence of urban light pollution, because scattered urban light is not strongly polarized.[84] Polarized moonlight can’t be seen by humans, but is believed to be used by many animals for navigation. This comes with a rather unique set of challenges, because what is polluting for one person can be acceptable or even desirable lighting for another. There are uses of light that are necessary at night, especially in cities; no ‘dark sky advocate’ would deny that. And there are obvious instances of excessive brightness and poorly designed lighting, which most reasonable people would agree is unnecessary and wasteful. But, there will also be instances that fall somewhere in an intermediary, gray area. These could be instances where the lighting does not obviously fall into one of the sub-categories of light pollution, or does not relate directly to one of the identified effects of light pollution, or is contested as a good by some stakeholders and a nuisance or excess by others. Or, it could be a new technological innovation that reduces energy consumption but will potentially increase skyglow—an emerging issue connected to LEDs (Morgan-Taylor, 2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). In these instances, we will see the weighing of benefits versus negative effects by regulatory decision-makers. It is unclear how the current conception of light pollution can be used to resolve such conflicts, without drawing upon a larger moral framework—for example, a formulation of the precautionary principle, a definition of sustainable development, or perhaps an explicit focus on minimizing energy usage—that helps to elucidate exactly what an acceptable level of pollution is. And, different approaches may rely on rights-based or consequentialist moral frameworks. These may, in turn, offer different boundary conditions for what qualifies as acceptable levels of light pollution. For example, in 2007, a group of astronomers published the Starlight Declaration, asserting that access to the night sky should be an ‘inalienable right of humankind’ (Starlight Initiative, 2007 Starlight Initiative. (2007). Declaration in defence of the night sky and the right to starlight. La Palma: La Palma Biosphere Reserve. Retrieved 14 January, 2015, from https://www.starlight2007.net/ [Google Scholar], p. 3). Adopting such a rights-based approach would likely yield different conclusions than, say, a cost-benefit analysis. We would then need to ask if light pollution is, or should be, beholden to one broader moral framework, or how different manifestations can be reconciled. If we recall the discussion of defining problems within policy as a means to guide action (Stone, 2002 Stone, D. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]), the concept of light pollution therefore requires further parameters beyond the causes and effects listed above. 4. Neumann’s’ Architecture of the Night (2002a Neumann, D. (Ed.). (2002a). Architecture of the night: The illuminated building. New York, NY: Prestel. [Google Scholar]) is arguably the most important recent study of nighttime illumination in architectural history and theory, linking the history of nighttime lighting with the history of modern architecture. Neumann mainly focuses on the esthetic and expressive qualities of ‘illuminated buildings’ throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, providing the first comprehensive catalogue of relevant architectural projects. If you notice a streetlight or outdoor area light is out, please use this form to let us know about the problem. Thank you for helping to keep our community safe. Few creationists have aggressively pursued solution one. The reasoning for this solution has been that if the distances of astronomical objects are not known that well, then astronomical bodies may be far closer than generally thought, and hence there is no light travel time problem. This solution amounts to defining the problem away, but there are additional problems with this solution. First, creationists who have suggested this solution do correctly point out that trigonometric parallax, the only direct method of measuring stellar distances, yields distances that at most are only a few hundred light years. So this could explain why we see all the stars for which we have directly determined distances. One might further reason that since the distance determination methods that give very great distances that cause the light travel time problem today are indirect, those indirect methods are somehow suspect. However, one cannot dismiss the indirect methods so easily. Most of these methods are based upon well understood physical principles, and many of the indirect methods are calibrated to trigonometric parallax. See Faulkner (2013) for a discussion of distance determination methods. Second, this solution relies upon the incorrectly formulated light travel time problem. While today we can see stars such as Alpha Centauri, the closest star similar to the sun, with this solution it would not have been visible to Adam at the conclusion of the Creation Week, because it is 4.3 light years away. For this solution to work, even the well determined trigonometric parallax method must be abandoned, but this is not physically supported. When reporting a lighting fault to us it would be helpful if you could supply: The use of full cutoff lighting fixtures, as much as possible, is advocated by most campaigners for the reduction of light pollution. It is also commonly recommended that lights be spaced appropriately for maximum efficiency, and that number of luminaires being used as well as the wattage of each luminaire match the needs of the particular application (based on local lighting design standards). ​Please help us by giving detailed information about the problem. For example, tell us if the light is out altogether, going on and off, burning all day or intermittent and include the number of the column if you can. If you can’t see this then please state the exact location or adjacent house number. Even dim light can interfere with a person’s circadian rhythm and melatonin secretion. A mere eight lux—a level of brightness exceeded by most table lamps and about twice that of a night light—has an effect, notes Stephen Lockley, a Harvard sleep researcher. Light at night is part of the reason so many people don’t get enough sleep, says Lockley, and researchers have linked short sleep to increased risk for depression, as well as diabetes and cardiovascular problems. Though astronomers need naturally dark skies to see and learn about faint and distant objects in the Universe, dark skies are valuable for everyone – they have been a source of beauty and inspiration to all of Humankind for as long as people have been aware enough to raise their eyes from the ground and wonder. And light that provides visibility without waste or glare is vital for vision for everyone. Norman, T. and B. Setterfield. 1987. The atomic constants, light, and time. Menlo Park, California: SRI International. Wildlife:John Metcalfe at Citylab.com reported last year that lights are disorienting birds, with deadly results. “Many species migrate by night and are perilously dazzled by artificial illumination, for reasons we don’t yet completely understand,” Metcalfe wrote. “Lights on skyscrapers, airports, and stadiums draw birds into urban areas, where they smack into walls and windows or each other, or flap around and eventually perish from exhaustion-related complications.” Use this form to report problems with street lights, traffic lights, zebra crossings, illuminated signs or bollards. Don’t Ignore That Light So if the Check Engine light comes on and it’s steady rather than flashing, what do you do? The most obvious answer, of course, is to get the engine checked. But many people do nothing, perhaps fearing an expensive repair bill. Some drivers with older cars want to squeeze out as many remaining miles as possible without visiting a service garage. But before they can pass their state’s vehicle inspection, they have to get the light turned off. And a state inspection is a good motivator for dealing with the problem. If the light is lit, there’s a good chance the car is releasing excess pollutants or consuming too much gas. Atlant Gel Celuraid Muscle Erozon Max power up premium Celuraid Muscle Tonus Fortis BioBelt power up premium erogran Zevs

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