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Like light waves, water waves emerging from two sources interferes in the space surrounding the sources to produce a pattern of nodes and antinodes lying along lines. The diagram at the right represents the interference pattern created by two water waves. The waves were created by two objects bobbing up and down in phase at the same frequency. Point P on the pattern is a distance of 34.0 cm from S1 and 23.8 cm from S2. Determine the wavelength (in cm) of the water waves. For a comprehensive understanding of light pollution, contemporary discourse must be coupled with an exploration of the origins and emergence of the concept, which in turn requires a broad understanding of the development of urban nighttime lighting. Detailed historical studies into the technological innovations and social implications of artificial nighttime lighting have been published in the past few decades (e.g. Bowers, 1998 Bowers, B. (1998). Lengthening the day: A history of lighting technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]; Ekirch, 2005 Ekirch, R. A. (2005). At day’s close: Night in times past. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]; Isenstadt, Maile Petty, & Neumann, 2014 Isenstadt, S., Maile Petty, M., & Neumann, D. (Eds.). (2014). Cities of light: Two centuries of urban illumination. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]; Nye, 1990 Nye, D. E. (1990). Electrifying America: Social meanings of a new technology, 1880–1940. Cambridge: MIT Press. [Google Scholar]; Schivelbusch, 1988 Schivelbusch, W. (1988). Disenchanted night: The industrialization of light in the nineteenth century. (A. Davis, Trans.) London: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]). And, important studies on the social, economic, and legal aspects of nighttime lighting have also been published recently (e.g. Meier, Hasenöhrl, Krause, & Pottharst, 2014 Meier, J., Hasenöhrl, U., Krause, K., & Pottharst, M. (Eds.). (2014). Urban lighting, light pollution and society. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). The brief discussion below cannot do full justice to the in-depth explorations of nighttime lighting that these scholars have explored, nor to the various cultural and geographical nuances of historical developments in lighting. Rather, I would like to highlight the conditions within which light pollution arose, which puts us in a better position to assess our contemporary definition and ask how the framing of light pollution responds to the core problem discussed above. In particular, Sections 3.1 and 3.2 will highlight the shift away from how to light cities and, somewhat paradoxically, toward a desire for dark or natural nights. Put otherwise, Sometimes it is not possible to completely get rid of the problem, as this may prevent the street light from being effective so we may need to find a compromise. The concept of light pollution coalesced in the early 1970s, amid a climate of political activism, rising environmental awareness, and an energy crisis. In discussing lighting conflicts in Germany—but providing generally applicable conclusions—Hasenöhrl (2014 Hasenöhrl, U. (2014). Lighting conflicts from a historical perspective. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution, and society (pp. 105–124). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar], p. 119) notes that ‘it was not before the oil crises and the growing environmental and heritage movements of the 1970s that lighting as a particularly visible form of energy consumption and as an object of cultural value regained public and political attention’. Lighting, at this point a ubiquitious everyday experience, was given new attention but in a very different framework: that it is polluting the night sky. Sperling (1991 Sperling, N. (1991). The disappearance of darkness. In D. L. Crawford (Ed.), Light pollution, radio interference, and space debris (Vol. 17, pp. 101–108). San Francisco, CA: Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. [Google Scholar]) gives a brief narrative of the term’s popularization, explaining that in the politically charged atmosphere of the 1960s and 1970s astronomers began advocating for the curbing of excess lighting detrimental to starlight visibility. Then during the 1973 energy crisis urban areas saw an increase in energy conservation efforts, resulting in decreases to public lighting (Neumann, 2002b Neumann, D. (2002b). Architectural illumination since World War II. In D. Neumann (Ed.), Architecture of the night: The illuminated building (pp. 78–84). New York, NY: Prestel. [Google Scholar]). Astronomers used the anti-waste strategies of the time to fight excess artificial nighttime brightness, which is when, according to Sperling, ‘the struggle took on its current aspect’ (1991 Sperling, N. (1991). The disappearance of darkness. In D. L. Crawford (Ed.), Light pollution, radio interference, and space debris (Vol. 17, pp. 101–108). San Francisco, CA: Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. [Google Scholar], p. 103). Thus, it was an opportune moment for astronomers to advocate for the mitigation of certain aspects of nighttime lighting. Around this time a paper was published in Science titled ‘Light Pollution: Outdoor lighting is a growing threat to astronomy’ (Riegel, 1973 Riegel, K. W. (1973). Light pollution: Outdoor lighting is a growing threat to astronomy. Science, 179, 1285–1291.10.1126/science.179.4080.1285[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]), which seemingly marks the academic acceptance and adoption of the concept. Hartnett, J. 2003. A new cosmology: Solution to the starlight travel time problem. TJ 17, no. 2:98–102. Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment. It is exacerbated by excessive, misdirected or obtrusive uses of light, but even carefully used light fundamentally alters natural conditions. As a major side-effect of urbanization, it is blamed for compromising health, disrupting ecosystems and spoiling aesthetic environments. An English journal has become alarmed at the relation of electricity to songbirds, which it maintains is closer than that of cats and fodder crops. How many of us, it asks, foresee that electricity may extirpate the songbird?…With the exception of the finches, all the English songbirds may be said to be insectivorous, and their diet consists chiefly of vast numbers of very small insects which they collect from the grass and herbs before the dew is dry. As the electric light is finding its way for street illumination into the country parts of England, these poor winged atoms are slain by thousands at each light every warm summer evening….The fear is expressed, that when England is lighted from one end to the other with electricity the song birds will die out from the failure of their food supply.[77] Recent creationists believe that the universe is only thousands of years old. The universe appears to be far larger than just a few thousand light years in size, suggesting the light travel time problem. However, by concentrating on the current age of the universe, we incorrectly formulate the light travel time problem. I recommend that we properly state the problem by noting that Adam had to see much of the universe at the conclusion of the Creation Week. Lisle, J. 2010. Anisotropic synchrony convention—A solution to the distant starlight problem. Answers Research Journal 3:191–207. Retrieved from You can report a non-urgent fault with a street light by using the ‘Report now’ button below or phoning the Fault Line on 0845 601 0939, Monday to Friday from 8am to 5pm.  The German-born, American physicist Albert Michelson devoted much of his life to the accurate measurement of the speed of light. In 1923, he positioned mirrors and detectors on two different California mountains positioned nearly 35 km (nearly 22 miles) apart. Using a sophisticated timing method of involving the rotating of octagonal mirrors, Michelson determined the speed of light to be 299,774 km/sec. At this speed, estimate the time it takes light to travel 35 km between mountains. U.S. federal agencies may also enforce standards and process complaints within their areas of jurisdiction. For instance, in the case of light trespass by white strobe lighting from communication towers in excess of FAA minimum lighting requirements[13] the Federal Communications Commission maintains an Antenna Structure Registration database[14] information which citizens may use to identify offending structures and provides a mechanism for processing citizen inquiries and complaints.[15] The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) has also incorporated a credit for reducing the amount of light trespass and sky glow into their environmentally friendly building standard known as LEED. Masculin Active testogen TestX Core TestX Core erogan TestX Core testogen vigrx Zevs erogan