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But not all colors of light have the same effect. Blue wavelengths—which are beneficial during daylight hours because they boost attention, reaction times, and mood—seem to be the most disruptive at night. And the proliferation of electronics with screens, as well as energy-efficient lighting, is increasing our exposure to blue wavelengths, especially after sundown. Lisle, J. 2010. Anisotropic synchrony convention—A solution to the distant starlight problem. Answers Research Journal 3:191–207. Retrieved from http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/arj/v3/n1/anisotropic-synchrony-convention. A more recent discussion (2009), written by Professor Steven Lockley, Harvard Medical School, can be found in the CfDS handbook “Blinded by the Light?”.[50] Chapter 4, “Human health implications of light pollution” states that “… light intrusion, even if dim, is likely to have measurable effects on sleep disruption and melatonin suppression. Even if these effects are relatively small from night to night, continuous chronic circadian, sleep and hormonal disruption may have longer-term health risks”. The New York Academy of Sciences hosted a meeting in 2009 on Circadian Disruption and Cancer.[51] Red light suppresses melatonin the least.[52] Your council is responsible for the installation and maintenance of street lights. my red light also on ive tried quite a few batteries.. what brand do you guys use? Apparent problems with a ceiling light fixture are usually traced to some issue that is interrupting the flow of electricity from the wall switch to the light fixture. Diagnosing the problem will depend on whether the light bulb does not light up at all, or if it is flickering intermittently.  Today I ended up checking everyones tail lights out in the parking lot. It all started when Kristin ask for help in repairing her inoperative brake likes. After fixing those we checked out all the lights on Kaias wagon and then my wife, Linda, drove in in her 1993 300D, so I decided to check those as well. A wide variety of fuel-based light sources are used in developing countries, including candles, oil lamps, ordinary kerosene lamps, pressurized kerosene lamps, bio-gas lamps and propane lamps. However, worldwide, an estimated 1.6 billion people use kerosene or oil as their primary source of fuel for lighting. The effectiveness of using full cutoff roadway lights to combat light pollution has also been called into question. According to design investigations, luminaires with full cutoff distributions (as opposed to cutoff or semi cutoff, compared here[87]) have to be closer together to meet the same light level, uniformity and glare requirements specified by the IESNA. These simulations optimized the height and spacing of the lights while constraining the overall design to meet the IESNA requirements, and then compared total uplight and energy consumption of different luminaire designs and powers. Cutoff designs performed better than full cutoff designs, and semi-cutoff performed better than either cutoff or full cutoff. This indicates that, in roadway installations, over-illumination or poor uniformity produced by full cutoff fixtures may be more detrimental than direct uplight created by fewer cutoff or semi-cutoff fixtures. Therefore, the overall performance of existing systems could be improved more by reducing the number of luminaires than by switching to full cutoff designs. Light pollution is artificial light introduced into the natural night, especially where it is not needed or wanted. This unwanted light appears Street light or pole serial number The serial number can be found on a sticker or tag at eye level on the street light standard or pole. I have outwalked the furthest city light, ends the first stanza of Robert Frost’s poem ‘Acquainted with the Night’. For many contemporary urban dwellers, such a feat is becoming exceedingly difficult in our electrified, 24 h societies. While artificial nighttime illumination has brought with it many advances and possibilities, the negative consequences of its ubiquity and proliferation have only recently emerged as a topic of inquiry. Discourse is increasingly framing concerns about nighttime lighting via the concept of light pollution, particularly with respect to environmental effects. However, light pollution has received relatively little attention compared to other environmental problems, remaining scientifically and culturally ‘in the dark’ (Hölker et al., 2010 Hölker, F., Moss, T., Griefahn, B., Kloas, W., Voigt, C., Henckel, D., … Tockner, K. (2010). The dark side of light: A transdisciplinary research agenda for light pollution policy. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 13.10.5751/ES-03685-150413[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Equally important, the framing of environmental problems caused by artificial nighttime lighting via the concept of light pollution has received little critical attention. Understandings of light pollution are reliant on seemingly technical descriptions—light pollution is used to categorize and quantify the adverse effects of artificial nighttime illumination. But such a categorization carries an implicit normative judgment, and should not be accepted without critical reflection. A typical kerosene lamp is made by taking an empty bottle or tin can, putting a wick in the middle, filling it with fuel and lighting. Using kerosene for lighting is extremely inefficient, dangerous and expensive, and it has extensive health and environmental drawbacks. But not all colors of light have the same effect. Blue wavelengths—which are beneficial during daylight hours because they boost attention, reaction times, and mood—seem to be the most disruptive at night. And the proliferation of electronics with screens, as well as energy-efficient lighting, is increasing our exposure to blue wavelengths, especially after sundown. New LED streetlights have a small box on top of each column that flash a very small red and blue light. Please do not report any streetlights found to have these on, as this is to confirm that they are connected to our central management system. Even more significantly, the word עָשָׂה (‘āśâ; “to do,” “to make”) is used specifically of the creation of the astronomical bodies in Genesis 1:16. The meaning of this verb is broader, semantically speaking, than בָּרָא, and may refer to acts of creative ingenuity by agents other than God. That being said, it is indisputably evident that עָשָׂה is commonly used to refer to the act of fashioning something out of already-existing material (for example, the creation of man in Genesis 1:26; cf. 2:7). Granted, such is not always the intended meaning, even with respect to the astronomical bodies (for example, compare Genesis 1:1 with 2 Kings 19:15; Isaiah 37:16; 66:22; Jeremiah 32:17). However, the use of עָשָׂה in the Day Four creation record apart from any contextual clues to suggest that it must bear the sense of creation out of nothing suggests that there is a distinct possibility that the making of the astronomical bodies was instead a matter of fashioning them from material previously created on Day One. Just as the description of the earth in Genesis 1:2 is of something unfinished that God returned over the next several days to shape and prepare, perhaps the matter that would become the astronomical bodies was created on Day One but was shaped on Day Four, whereupon God brought forth their light to the earth. With this definition and sub-categorization, the use of light pollution as a framework for evaluating artificial nighttime lighting begins to come into focus. The undesired outputs of artificial nighttime lighting—be it any of the four broad types listed above—can then be considered in terms of effects. The consequences of light pollution are far reaching, and supporting research is often still at an early stage. However, the effects can likewise be subdivided into five broad categories: energy usage, ecology, health, safety, and the night sky. The past few decades have seen the first large-scale investigations of energy usage by artificial nighttime lighting, as well as its connection to economic costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The International Dark-Sky Association estimates that 22% of all energy in the USA is used for lighting, and of that around 8% is used for outdoor nighttime lighting (IDA, 2014 IDA. (2014). International Dark-Sky Association. International Dark-Sky Association. Retrieved 15 January, 2015, from https://darksky.org/ [Google Scholar]). Another recent study concluded that this number is closer to 6% (Gallaway, Olsen, & Mitchell, 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Such studies often focus not just on the amount of energy used for lighting, but specifically the amount of wasted light. A consistent estimate is that approximately 30% of outdoor lighting in the United States is wasted (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]; Henderson, 2010 Henderson, D. (2010). Valuing the stars: On the economics of light pollution. Environmental Philosophy, 7, 17–26.10.5840/envirophil2010712[Crossref] [Google Scholar]).77. By wasted, we can assume this percentage of lighting is deemed to fall within one (or more) of the categories listed above (skyglow, glare, light trespass, or clutter).View all notes This translates into roughly 73 million megawatt hours of ‘needlessly generated’ electricty, with an estimated annual cost of US$6.9 billion. Elimating this wasted light, in terms of CO2 reduction, is equivalent to removing 9.5 million cars from the road (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Similar estimates of wasted light in the European Union have predicted that the direct costs amount to €5.2 billion, or 23.5 billion kg of CO2 annually (Morgan-Taylor, 2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). Anabolic Rx24 Tonus Fortis eracto BeMass Erozon Max BioBelt Celuraid Muscle Masculin Active Zevs Penigen 500

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