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The IDA, founded 30 years ago, gathers and disseminates light-pollution information and solutions. It has played a pivotal role in turning the tide in the light-pollution war. The IDA is winning over key sectors of the nonastronomical public — including government groups, sections of the lighting industry and electric utilities — arguing that good lighting for astronomers equals energy savings and more attractive surroundings for everyone else. I’m trying to explain some LED-lighting phenomena, that we (me and my family) have observed, while changing light bulbs into LEDs. I’ve had some courses in semiconductor physics, and I’ve had a basic course in electronics, but I still have some difficulties in explaining these phenomena. In addition to turning on the light—known as the International Check Engine Symbol—the computer stores a “trouble code” in its memory that identifies the source of the problem, such as a malfunctioning sensor or a misfiring engine. The code can be read with an electronic scan tool or a diagnostic computer—standard equipment in auto repair shops. There are also a number of relatively inexpensive code readers that are designed for do-it-yourselfers. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate light pollution as a normative concept, and focus specifically on its increasing role in shaping, or framing, future regulatory efforts, and decision-making processes. The goal is not to condemn or approve of the use of light pollution from an ethical perspective, nor is it to arrive at definitive answers for the ambiguities inherent in the concept. Rather, I begin by accepting the term as the dominant concept for describing a novel environmental problem, and critically reflect on its ethical significance and potential limitations. While the implications of light pollution are far-reaching, here I will focus specifically on light pollution as it relates to urban nighttime lighting. Such an analysis can be seen as an example of an issue discussed within this journal by Elliott (2009 Elliott, K. (2009). The ethical significance of language in the environmental sciences: Case studies from pollution research. Ethics, Place & Environment, 12, 157–173.10.1080/13668790902863382[Taylor & Francis Online] [Google Scholar]), namely the ethical significance of language and terminology choices for framing environmental policy decisions and debates. While Elliott discusses very different types of pollution, the themes highlighted are quite relevant for an examination of light pollution. Elliott—who draws from a more pragmatic branch of environmental ethics that I adopt here—describes the usefulness of practical ethics for policy discussions. Philosophers can help to create and define the moral space within which policy decisions will be made, and so can contribute to upstream policy decisions. Elliot (2009 Elliott, K. (2009). The ethical significance of language in the environmental sciences: Case studies from pollution research. Ethics, Place & Environment, 12, 157–173.10.1080/13668790902863382[Taylor & Francis Online] [Google Scholar], p. 170) explains that, I’m so worried about my camera right now I just dropped it and now the red light isn’t going away I don’t know what to do PLEASE HELP To report a street light outage, a light going on and off (cycling), a light on during the day, vandalism, or any other problem with a street light, call the Street Light Outage Hotline or use the online form. A first step is to consider the limitations for application, for which a consideration of language will be helpful. As the above discussion in Section 3 makes clear, light pollution is not simply a description of certain environmental impacts, but also an evaluation of the effects of nighttime lighting technologies and infrastructure. Light pollution is both a descriptive statement and a value judgment with normative implications—it categorizes certain uses and types of lighting as bad or wrong. Historically lighting often functioned as a form of safety and protection at night, but there has been a reversal. Now humans, animals, and the night sky require protection from artificial light. Importantly, articulating this shift in perspective via the notion of light as a pollutant adds a moral level to an otherwise technical discussion of illumination. But, in considering the creation of a moral space for deliberation, we should reflect on the implications of this label. Garrard (2004 Garrard, G. (2004). Ecocriticism. New York, NY: Routledge. [Google Scholar]), in assessing Rachel Carson’s iconic Silent Spring, notes that one of the book’s lasting achievements was expanding what was previously seen as a scientific issue (the usage of pesticides) into a social problem. By this, Garrard is referring to the categorization of pesticides as pollution. This is because ‘pollution’ does not name an actual thing, but rather provides an implicit normative claim that ‘too much of something is present in the environment, usually in the wrong place’ (2004 Garrard, G. (2004). Ecocriticism. New York, NY: Routledge. [Google Scholar], p. 6). Carson helped to reframe perspectives, allowing the usage of pesticides to be contested morally and politically. The same can be said of the concept of light pollution, generally considered: it breaks with the historical meanings and values associated with nighttime lighting, reframing discussions as a debate over how we ought to preserve and protect the night sky, as well as protect ourselves and ecosystems, from excess artificial light. U.S. federal agencies may also enforce standards and process complaints within their areas of jurisdiction. For instance, in the case of light trespass by white strobe lighting from communication towers in excess of FAA minimum lighting requirements[13] the Federal Communications Commission maintains an Antenna Structure Registration database[14] information which citizens may use to identify offending structures and provides a mechanism for processing citizen inquiries and complaints.[15] The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) has also incorporated a credit for reducing the amount of light trespass and sky glow into their environmentally friendly building standard known as LEED. But not all colors of light have the same effect. Blue wavelengths—which are beneficial during daylight hours because they boost attention, reaction times, and mood—seem to be the most disruptive at night. And the proliferation of electronics with screens, as well as energy-efficient lighting, is increasing our exposure to blue wavelengths, especially after sundown. The two main reasons street lights stop working are: Light pollution is artificial light introduced into the natural night, especially where it is not needed or wanted. This unwanted light appears Reducing light pollution implies many things, such as reducing sky glow, reducing glare, reducing light trespass, and reducing clutter. The method for best reducing light pollution, therefore, depends on exactly what the problem is in any given instance. Possible solutions include: Report a street light problem I spent more than 30 years looking for a solution to the light travel time problem, and recently I began thinking about a possibility that I find satisfactory. With so many other proposed solutions, one may legitimately ask why one more? I see that most of these solutions to the light travel time problem have advantages and disadvantages. If there were one solution that worked, there would not be so many solutions, and there would not be such sharp disagreement. Please consider my modest proposal. As I have previously argued (Faulkner 1999), I submit that God’s work of making the astronomical bodies on Day Four involved an act not of creating them ex nihilo, but rather of forming them from previously-created material, namely, material created on Day One. As a part of God’s formative work, light from the astronomical bodies was miraculously made to “shoot” its way to the earth at an abnormally accelerated rate in order to fulfill their function of serving to indicate signs, seasons, days, and years. I emphasize that my proposal differs from cdk in that no physical mechanism is invoked, it is likely space itself that has rapidly moved, and that the speed of light since Creation Week has been what is today. Street light replacement project – We’re investing in a £25 million capital project to update and replace thousands of street lights across the town. 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