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Humphreys, D. R. 1994. Starlight and time. Green Forest, Arkansas: Master Books. Please use the form below to report the street light problem. Outdoor Area Light – An outdoor light, typically on private property, that is maintained by the electric company and leased to the customer. Hey. My camera also fell like a week ago and the red light near the lense won’t go and if I take a photo, the film won’t come out like if I didn’t had any. Light trespass occurs when unwanted light enters one’s property, for instance, by shining over a neighbor’s fence. A common light trespass problem occurs when a strong light enters the window of one’s home from the outside, causing problems such as sleep deprivation. A number of cities in the U.S. have developed standards for outdoor lighting to protect the rights of their citizens against light trespass. To assist them, the International Dark-Sky Association has developed a set of model lighting ordinances.[12] The effectiveness of using full cutoff roadway lights to combat light pollution has also been called into question. According to design investigations, luminaires with full cutoff distributions (as opposed to cutoff or semi cutoff, compared here[87]) have to be closer together to meet the same light level, uniformity and glare requirements specified by the IESNA. These simulations optimized the height and spacing of the lights while constraining the overall design to meet the IESNA requirements, and then compared total uplight and energy consumption of different luminaire designs and powers. Cutoff designs performed better than full cutoff designs, and semi-cutoff performed better than either cutoff or full cutoff. This indicates that, in roadway installations, over-illumination or poor uniformity produced by full cutoff fixtures may be more detrimental than direct uplight created by fewer cutoff or semi-cutoff fixtures. Therefore, the overall performance of existing systems could be improved more by reducing the number of luminaires than by switching to full cutoff designs. Use dimmer switches on household lights or use candles. At night, use dimmer switches in your home to reduce unnecessary lighting, or try using candles if you want to reduce your light pollution even further, and to encourage your own body’s winding down for the night. You might find that you like the effects, and appreciate the increased restful sleep of your entire family! Also, if possible, consider eliminating your use of electronics a couple of hours before you go to bed to eliminate the blue light that such devices often emanate that may negatively impact your body’s own melatonin production. So while the fascination and allure of illuminations persist, darkness is today increasingly perceived as a rare and valuable commodity. This development could be regarded as a double paradigm shift from the dark night as a forbidding everyday occurrence that could only be lit up sporadically to its devaluation as an emblem of backwardness in the face of a new abundance of artificial light in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to its present valorization as a sought-after luxury in our densely populated and highly electrified world. (Hasenöhrl, 2014 Hasenöhrl, U. (2014). Lighting conflicts from a historical perspective. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution, and society (pp. 105–124). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar], p. 119) In addition to turning on the light—known as the International Check Engine Symbol—the computer stores a “trouble code” in its memory that identifies the source of the problem, such as a malfunctioning sensor or a misfiring engine. The code can be read with an electronic scan tool or a diagnostic computer—standard equipment in auto repair shops. There are also a number of relatively inexpensive code readers that are designed for do-it-yourselfers. In September 2009, the 9th European Dark-Sky Symposium in Armagh, Northern Ireland had a session on the environmental effects of light at night (LAN). It dealt with bats, turtles, the “hidden” harms of LAN, and many other topics.[76] The environmental effects of LAN were mentioned as early as 1897, in a Los Angeles Times article. The following is an excerpt from that article, called “Electricity and English songbirds”: Ten percent of all cars on the road have a Check Engine light on, and the drivers of half of these cars have ignored the light for more than three months, says Kristin Brocoff, a spokesperson for The company sells a $119 device that reads engine codes and provides access to a Web site database that identifies the problem (according to the code) and estimates the cost of repair. I have outwalked the furthest city light, ends the first stanza of Robert Frost’s poem ‘Acquainted with the Night’. For many contemporary urban dwellers, such a feat is becoming exceedingly difficult in our electrified, 24 h societies. While artificial nighttime illumination has brought with it many advances and possibilities, the negative consequences of its ubiquity and proliferation have only recently emerged as a topic of inquiry. Discourse is increasingly framing concerns about nighttime lighting via the concept of light pollution, particularly with respect to environmental effects. However, light pollution has received relatively little attention compared to other environmental problems, remaining scientifically and culturally ‘in the dark’ (Hölker et al., 2010 Hölker, F., Moss, T., Griefahn, B., Kloas, W., Voigt, C., Henckel, D., … Tockner, K. (2010). The dark side of light: A transdisciplinary research agenda for light pollution policy. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 13.10.5751/ES-03685-150413[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Equally important, the framing of environmental problems caused by artificial nighttime lighting via the concept of light pollution has received little critical attention. Understandings of light pollution are reliant on seemingly technical descriptions—light pollution is used to categorize and quantify the adverse effects of artificial nighttime illumination. But such a categorization carries an implicit normative judgment, and should not be accepted without critical reflection. In this verse, the statement that the Lord “stretched out the heavens” is paired with the statement that He “laid the foundations of the earth.” Since the latter act is certainly to be understood as an action completed in the past, the former should be as well. Thus, it is most likely that this past stretching is related to creation. I propose that the stretching of the heavens may refer to rapid stretching of space to get starlight to the earth on Day Four, the same day that stars were made. 8. Gallaway et al. (2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) utilize the threshold criteria established by Cinzano et al. (2001 Cinzano, P., Falchi, F., & Elvidge, C. D. (2001). The first world Atlas of the artificial night sky brightness. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 328, 689–707.10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04882.x[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) for considering an area ‘polluted’ by light. These criteria ‘consider the night sky polluted when the artificial brightness of the sky is greater than 10% of the natural sky brightness above 45° of elevation’ (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar], p. 660). Of course, it must be remembered that the aforementioned biblical references to the stretching of the heavens appear in poetic passages that are unlike the record of Day Four in Genesis 1:14–19, which bears all the markings of prose (Boyd 2005). Consequently, “stretching” in these instances may be a metaphorical device that refers to nothing more than the creation of the heavens in their expanse. In other words, the language employed is likely not specific enough to enlist as certain evidence for the defense of my view. Nevertheless, the language surely does not preclude the position I have advanced; indeed, if the text does intend to convey the idea of light travelling at an abnormally accelerated rate in order to reach the earth on Day Four (or, at the very latest, Day Six), then reference to God stretching out the heavens is quite appropriate. Erozon Max Maxman power up premium Tonus Fortis testogen Testogen Testogen el macho Celuraid Muscle Erozon Max