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Determine the frequency of … (GIVEN: 1 m = 109 nm) a. … red visible light (λ = 650 nm) b. … violet visible light (λ = 420 nm) Access to electricity and poverty are closely linked, countries that have the lowest levels of electrification also have the highest levels of poverty. Without adequate electricity and lighting, adults are unable to continue income generating activities into the evening that may lessen the burden of poverty. At the same time, children are unable to study, read or do school work. Rural communities need a reliable and sustainable solution for lighting to give them hope for a brighter future. Prospective observers can report their results online by comparing the number of stars seen in the night sky with a set of template images that depict the stars’ visibility in varying levels of light pollution. Participation is open to anyone, anywhere in the world, who can get outside and look skyward. In the attic there are three switches. Each switch controls one of the lights in the basement. According to the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA), “Outdoor lighting with high blue light content is more likely to contribute to light pollution because it has a significantly larger geographic reach than lighting with less blue light. Blue-rich white light sources are also known to increase glare and compromise human vision. And in natural settings, blue light at night has been shown to adversely affect wildlife behavior and reproduction.” Nicholas Nickleby was a campaigning novel highlighting the brutality of these schools to an ignorant or compliant society, which ultimately resulted in the schools’ demise. Today, Dotheboys Hall is filled with children being children, innocent fun and mischief, blissfully ignorant of Dotheboys’ past. The parallels between Nicholas Nickleby and modern-day campaigning journalism should not be lost. Sean Webb Dotheboys Hall Bowes, Co Durham You can report a non-urgent fault with a street light by using the ‘Report now’ button below or phoning the Fault Line on 0845 601 0939, Monday to Friday from 8am to 5pm.  Setterfield, B. 1989. The atomic constants in light of criticism. Creation Research Society Quarterly 25:190–197. In fact, the increasing levels of artificial light in our world are leading to a problem known as light pollution, and it is literally blocking out the night sky that our ancestors knew intimately and ran their lives by for thousands of years. Today, light pollution is increasingly difficult to avoid in our developing world.   We will not fit a shade to new LED street lighting for the first 3 months after installation. If there is still an issue after 3 months, please report the problem. The ‘distant starlight problem’ is sometimes used as an argument against biblical creation. People who believe in billions of years often claim that light from the most distant galaxies could not possibly reach earth in only 6,000 years. However, the light-travel–time argument cannot be used to reject the Bible in favour of the big bang, with its billions of years. This is because the big bang model also has a light-travel–time problem. What all definitions have in common—either explicitly or implicitly—is the goal of establishing a base upon which the negative effects of artificial nighttime illumination can be categorized. Toward this end, Gallaway’s definition opens us to the broader range of concerns embodied by the contemporary usage of the term—light pollution is not meant to condemn nighttime lighting as a whole, but rather specific uses and outputs of artificial lighting. These negative or undesired aspects of nighttime lighting can be subdivided into four categories: skyglow, glare, light trespass, and clutter.66. These four categories of light pollution are used (although with slightly different terms) by the International Dark-Sky Association, and cited elsewhere as well (e.g. Morgan-Taylor, 2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). As such, I am accepting these as the standard causes of light pollution.View all notes Skyglow is light sent upward (directly or reflected) and scattered in the atmosphere, causing artificial ambient brightness and decreasing stellar visibility (Mizon, 2012 Mizon, B. (2012). Light pollution: Responses and remedies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.10.1007/978-1-4614-3822-9[Crossref] [Google Scholar]). This is the orange haze often seen above cities, and the largest burden for astronomy. It has also arguably been the dominant focus of efforts to quantify light pollution, as some landmark studies rely on satellite imagery (e.g. Cinzano, Falchi, & Elvidge, 2001 Cinzano, P., Falchi, F., & Elvidge, C. D. (2001). The first world Atlas of the artificial night sky brightness. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 328, 689–707.10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04882.x[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). The other three forms of light pollution are more commonly experienced hinderences in daily life: glare occurs when excessive brightness reduces visibility (e.g. a floodlight at eye level), light trespass is unwanted or unintended light (e.g. light shining into your bedroom window at night), and clutter is caused by over-illuminated clusters of light sources (e.g. signage and advertising) (IDA, 2014 IDA. (2014). International Dark-Sky Association. International Dark-Sky Association. Retrieved 15 January, 2015, from [Google Scholar]; Morgan-Taylor, 2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). Until the advent of artificial lighting, the sun was the major source of lighting, and people spent their evenings in (relative) darkness. Now, in much of the world, evenings are illuminated, and we take our easy access to all those lumens pretty much for granted. In our living room, there are 4 light sources, each of which consists of 4 light bulbs. I assume all of those (16 in total) light bulbs are in parallel, because when one of them is broken, all the others (15 bulbs), still shine. We can turn those light bulbs on with a slider. So it is possible to let them shine on f.i. half the intensity. Creating a coherent and effective frame for the challenges of nighttime lighting carries its own idiosyncratic considerations. Beyond functionality, the symbolic meanings of lighting technologies have played an active role in determining their uses and acceptance (Nye, 2006 Nye, D. E. (2006). Technology matters: Questions to live with. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar]). Throughout history, perceptions of nighttime lighting have consistently blurred the literal and the symbolic; intertwined actual lighting with metaphorical notions of the values that lighting embodies (Schivelbusch, 1988 Schivelbusch, W. (1988). Disenchanted night: The industrialization of light in the nineteenth century. (A. Davis, Trans.) London: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]). This is not entirely surprising, as metaphors are pervasive in our everyday language (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980 Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We live by. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]) and politics (Stone, 2002 Stone, D. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]). A metaphorical concept allows us to see one thing in terms of another—in this case, to see some outputs of artificial lighting as a ‘pollutant’ of the night sky, our bodies, and ecosystems. Like sound pollution, it is a powerful framing that will shape how we think, speak, and act with regards to nighttime lighting technologies. Conceptual metaphors are useful but also can be troublesome, because The light travel time problem is one of the greatest challenges that recent creationists face today. Simply defined, if the universe is only thousands of years old as the Bible strongly suggests, then how can we see objects that are at light travel time distances far greater than a few thousand years? A popular unit of distance used in astronomy is the light year, the distance that light travels in a year. Multiplying the speed of light by the number of seconds in a year, we find that the light year is a little more than 9 × 1012 km. Obviously, using “normal” units of distance measurements such as meters or kilometers is woefully inadequate in astronomy, hence the definition of this new unit of distance. With the most straightforward approach to the biblical record and the vast distances in astronomy, we ought not to see any objects more than a few thousand light years away. Most of the objects visible to the naked eye are not this far away, so, as the light travel time problem normally is defined, most objects visible to the naked eye do not present a problem to the recent creation model. BeMass TestX Core Penigen 500 deseo eracto power up premium power up premium Eron Plus Maxman erogan