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Some astronomers do not accept inflationary models and have proposed other possible solutions to the horizon problem. These include: scenarios in which the gravitational constant varies with time,5 the ‘ekpyrotic model’ which involves a cyclic universe,6 scenarios in which light takes ‘shortcuts’ through extra (hypothetical) dimensions,7 ‘null-singularity’ models,8 and models in which the speed of light was much greater in the past.9,10 (Creationists have also pointed out that a changing speed of light may solve light-travel–time difficulties for biblical creation.11) Check out the FAQ for commonly asked questions about The City street lighting program. 5. Criticisms can be found as early as 1662, when a London pastor stated ‘We ought not to turn day into night, nor night into day … without some very special and urgent occasion’ (Ekirch, 2005 Ekirch, R. A. (2005). At day’s close: Night in times past. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar], p. 74). This was due to the disruption of the perceived natural (Christian) order that such lighting may cause. However, most criticisms are found in the nineteenth century onward, and specifically around times of transition between technologies. Early objections were often esthetic, however moral objections can also be found (Hasenöhrl, 2014 Hasenöhrl, U. (2014). Lighting conflicts from a historical perspective. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution, and society (pp. 105–124). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). There are documented criticisms of artificial nighttime lighting in astronomy-related literature as early as 1866 (Sperling, 1991 Sperling, N. (1991). The disappearance of darkness. In D. L. Crawford (Ed.), Light pollution, radio interference, and space debris (Vol. 17, pp. 101–108). San Francisco, CA: Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. [Google Scholar]). Already in the 1880s, Alexander Pelham Tottler—generally regarded as the originator of the scientific study of lighting—identified issues with street lighting that predict modern debates. For example, he argued that too much light is wasted, and that glare causes safety concerns (Bowers, 1998 Bowers, B. (1998). Lengthening the day: A history of lighting technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]). Naturalists and artists expressed ambiguity (at best) towards artificial light as early as the 1920s (Nye, 1990 Nye, D. E. (1990). Electrifying America: Social meanings of a new technology, 1880–1940. Cambridge: MIT Press. [Google Scholar]), and by this time there were already some calls for lighting engineers to reduce urban brightness (Isenstadt, 2014 Isenstadt, S. (2014). Good night. Places Journal. Retrieved 22 October, 2014, from[Crossref] [Google Scholar]). CarMD isn’t alone in the code-reader market. An Internet search will bring up countless devices, some costing as little as $40. Most come with a booklet listing the codes, but it is also easy to do a Google search to locate the codes. Aamco will check the Check Engine light for free and provides a fact sheet. If the light comes on, Mazor says the driver should first see if the gas cap is loose: That’s a common cause. A loose cap sends an error message to the car’s computer, reporting a leak in the vapor recovery system, which is one aspect of a car’s emissions system. If the gas cap is loose, tighten it and continue driving. Even so, it will take some time for the light to go off, he says. Put exterior lights on motion detectors to reduce the unnecessary use of outdoor lighting, and direct illumination of lights towards the ground, not upwards (which is not efficient, and contributes to sky glow). I’m so worried about my camera right now I just dropped it and now the red light isn’t going away I don’t know what to do PLEASE HELP The purpose of this paper is to elucidate light pollution as a normative concept, and focus specifically on its increasing role in shaping, or framing, future regulatory efforts, and decision-making processes. The goal is not to condemn or approve of the use of light pollution from an ethical perspective, nor is it to arrive at definitive answers for the ambiguities inherent in the concept. Rather, I begin by accepting the term as the dominant concept for describing a novel environmental problem, and critically reflect on its ethical significance and potential limitations. While the implications of light pollution are far-reaching, here I will focus specifically on light pollution as it relates to urban nighttime lighting. Such an analysis can be seen as an example of an issue discussed within this journal by Elliott (2009 Elliott, K. (2009). The ethical significance of language in the environmental sciences: Case studies from pollution research. Ethics, Place & Environment, 12, 157–173.10.1080/13668790902863382[Taylor & Francis Online] [Google Scholar]), namely the ethical significance of language and terminology choices for framing environmental policy decisions and debates. While Elliott discusses very different types of pollution, the themes highlighted are quite relevant for an examination of light pollution. Elliott—who draws from a more pragmatic branch of environmental ethics that I adopt here—describes the usefulness of practical ethics for policy discussions. Philosophers can help to create and define the moral space within which policy decisions will be made, and so can contribute to upstream policy decisions. Elliot (2009 Elliott, K. (2009). The ethical significance of language in the environmental sciences: Case studies from pollution research. Ethics, Place & Environment, 12, 157–173.10.1080/13668790902863382[Taylor & Francis Online] [Google Scholar], p. 170) explains that, We can see the emergence of the concept of light pollution as—at least in part—a reactionary shift in perception to the widespread proliferation of electric illumination at night. A recent New York Times article quoted a behavioral ecologist as stating that we need to ‘start thinking of a photon as a potential pollutant’ (St. Fleur, 2016 St. Fleur, N. (2016, April 7). Illuminating the effects of light pollution. New York Times. Retrieved 7 April, 2016, from [Google Scholar]). To accept this re-framing is to begin seeing artificial nighttime lighting as spreading polluting photons into the atmosphere, the environment, and ourselves. Answers will likely take the form of either preservation or mitigation strategies—certainly not a bad approach, but it does draw attention to the importance of light pollution as a framework through which solutions can emerge. Regulations and strategies based on light pollution will necessarily focus on reducing the negative or adverse effects of nighttime lighting; on protecting those things or resources affected, and/or cutting out that 30% of lighting considered to be ‘wasted’ (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). As a regulatory tool, this can be quite useful, and follows a similar strategy as attempts to regulate other pollutants. We may need to check the street light location with you, so make sure your contact information is correct. But what of the details of the transition between the miraculous transmission of light over great distances to the relatively slow pace today, all accomplished on Day Four? Would this imply a transition region that still might be reaching the earth today? Might there be some implication for the Hubble relation, the general trend of increasing redshift with increasing distance? Alas, I do not know. These and many other questions must be addressed for my proposal to be taken seriously by fellow creation scientists. I hope that with time to reflect, discussion with others, and perhaps the work of others on my proposals may yield some insight into these and many more questions. I place this proposal before others to stimulate discussion. Hey. My camera also fell like a week ago and the red light near the lense won’t go and if I take a photo, the film won’t come out like if I didn’t had any. Street lights on red routes, however, are maintained by Transport for London (TfL) – report a problem to TfL. Recessed canister lights are subject to some of the same problems found in ordinary ceiling light fixtures (see above). In addition, sometimes a recessed light fixture may mysteriously go on and of by itself. This is because recessed lights are equipped with limit switches designed to turn a fixture off automatically if the heat reaches an unsafe level. This can be for one of several reasons:  Erozon Max Masculin Active erogan Atlant Gel Masculin Active Masculin Active power up premium BioBelt Steroïden el macho