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Central to Dorst’s frame creation model (2015 Dorst, K. (2015). Frame innovation: Create new thinking by design. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar]) is the great length that designers go to assess the frameworks through which problems are approached. Complex problems—such as the impacts of artificial nighttime lighting—are often caused by underlying value conflicts, and the inability of current frameworks to adequately address said values. By looking into the origins and history of the problem, the key driving issue, and the current context, a more comprehensive picture of the problem and underlying values emerge. And simultaneously the possibility of new approaches, or frames, will also emerge (Dorst, 2015 Dorst, K. (2015). Frame innovation: Create new thinking by design. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar]). However, for our present purposes we will not search for a new or radically different approach, but rather ask how the coalescing frame of light pollution is responding to our problem. We have our core issue present in the novel challenge described above. The next steps are to examine the origins and current context in turn, so see how light pollution can be improved as an effective frame. The third solution is not much discussed anymore. It relied upon some speculative hypothesis about the nature of light that has never been demonstrated. Very few creationists embraced this solution anyway, and those who once did mention this solution normally offered it as a hypothetical possibility not necessarily with endorsement. For a critical discussion of this theory, please see Akridge (1984). A Harvard study shed a little bit of light on the possible connection to diabetes and possibly obesity. The researchers put 10 people on a schedule that gradually shifted the timing of their circadian rhythms. Their blood sugar levels increased, throwing them into a prediabetic state, and levels of leptin, a hormone that leaves people feeling full after a meal, went down. This light is switched off for energy saving. A Safe, Low-Cost Alternative to Kerosene lighting 7. By wasted, we can assume this percentage of lighting is deemed to fall within one (or more) of the categories listed above (skyglow, glare, light trespass, or clutter). A common criticism of full cutoff lighting fixtures is that they are sometimes not as aesthetically pleasing to look at. This is most likely because historically there has not been a large market specifically for full cutoff fixtures, and because people typically like to see the source of illumination. Due to the specificity with their direction of light, full cutoff fixtures sometimes also require expertise to install for maximum effect. The big bang requires that opposite regions of the visible universe must have exchanged energy by radiation, since these regions of space look the same in CMB maps. But there has not been enough time for light to travel this distance. Both biblical creationists and big bang supporters have proposed a variety of possible solutions to light-travel–time difficulties in their respective models. So big-bangers should not criticize creationists for hypothesizing potential solutions, since they do the same thing with their own model. The horizon problem remains a serious difficulty for big bang supporters, as evidenced by their many competing conjectures that attempt to solve it. Therefore, it is inconsistent for supporters of the big bang model to use light-travel time as an argument against biblical creation, since their own notion has an equivalent problem. To solve the starlight problem, some creationists have proposed a change in the speed of light; this proposition became known as c-decay. The idea was first systematically advanced by creationist Barry Setterfield in his 1981 book The Velocity of Light and the Age of the Universe. Setterfield claimed that, at the date of creation, light traveled millions of times faster than it does today and has been decaying precipitously ever since (until it stopped at its present value coincidentally with the ability to detect small changes). This idea is fundamentally absurd and since its inception has been universally derided by scientists. The idea was supported into the late eighties by creationists whose claims became more and more bizarre in attempts to prop up their failing model, until it finally collapsed under the weight of the evidence against it. In 1988, the idea was given up by the major creationist organization Institute for Creation Research, which, in an attempt to distance themselves from the scientific debacle that c-decay had become, became vocal critics of it.[5] Not convinced that extra lighting is a problem? Check out these nighttime satellite views of Earth, courtesy of NASA’s Suomi NPP satellite. Additional images from Suomi NPP taken between 2010 and 2016 clearly show how light pollution is on the rise around the globe. The Simons Cracking the Glass collaboration held a workshop on Oct 22-26, 2017 at Royaumont Abbey outside Paris, France. The intimate, focused workshop involved PIs, affillates, postdocs and students, with a goal of synthesizing progress, highlighting new discoveries with the potential to catalyze additional collaboration within the group, and coordinating future effort. Over-illumination is the excessive use of light. Specifically within the United States, over-illumination is responsible for approximately two million barrels of oil per day in energy wasted.[citation needed] This is based upon U.S. consumption of equivalent of 18.8 million barrels per day (2,990,000 m3/d) of petroleum.[16] It is further noted in the same U.S. Department of Energy source that over 30% of all primary energy is consumed by commercial, industrial and residential sectors. Energy audits of existing buildings demonstrate that the lighting component of residential, commercial and industrial uses consumes about 20–40% of those land uses, variable with region and land use. (Residential use lighting consumes only 10–30% of the energy bill while commercial buildings’ major use is lighting.[17]) Thus lighting energy accounts for about four or five million barrels of oil (equivalent) per day. Again energy audit data demonstrates that about 30–60% of energy consumed in lighting is unneeded or gratuitous.[18] The third solution is not much discussed anymore. It relied upon some speculative hypothesis about the nature of light that has never been demonstrated. Very few creationists embraced this solution anyway, and those who once did mention this solution normally offered it as a hypothetical possibility not necessarily with endorsement. For a critical discussion of this theory, please see Akridge (1984). Street light replacement project – We’re investing in a £25 million capital project to update and replace thousands of street lights across the town. In establishing an acceptable level of polluting, some clarification of qualitative values will strengthen future decisions. Consider the research by Gallaway (2014 Gallaway, T. (2014). The value of the night sky. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 267–283). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]), who explores the instrumental value of the night sky for promoting the broadly held values of happiness and sustainability. He concludes by stating, ‘We suggest that estimating the night’s value is not nearly as important as simply recognizing that it does have enormous value and then trying to preserve this value and put it to good use’ (p. 280). Gallaway’s discussion of key night sky traits includes its ability to connect us to the natural world, its ability to engender a sense of wonder, and its beauty. Such an articulation of the value of reducing light pollution falls outside traditional economic calculations, as discussed elsewhere by Gallaway (2010 Gallaway, T. (2010). On light pollution, passive pleasures, and the instrumental value of beauty. Journal of Economic Issues, 44, 71–88.10.2753/JEI0021-3624440104[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). It also further calls into question a needs-based approach. As a frame, light pollution will set the boundaries on what sort of answers are possible, which requires a careful consideration of how ‘needs’ are defined, and what needs ought to be encapsulated by future policies. BioBelt Steroïden Maca peruana VigRX Plus BioBelt VigRX Plus power up premium TestX Core el macho Atlant Gel

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