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Access to electricity and poverty are closely linked, countries that have the lowest levels of electrification also have the highest levels of poverty. Without adequate electricity and lighting, adults are unable to continue income generating activities into the evening that may lessen the burden of poverty. At the same time, children are unable to study, read or do school work. Rural communities need a reliable and sustainable solution for lighting to give them hope for a brighter future. Report a street light problem  The starlight problem states that if the universe was only 6,000 years old — as Biblical literalism and Young Earth Creationism (YEC) state — then there would not be sufficient time for distant starlight to reach Earth. We can see light from stars more (way more) than 6,000 light years away, therefore the universe cannot be a mere 6,000 years old. That last suggestion seems to be of especially increasing concern. As an artifact of the lower costs of LEDs, many people are now unnecessarily illuminating places that they didn’t bother to light before, like the outsides of buildings and other infrastructure, according to a study in the journal Science Advances. The challenge faced by 21st century policymakers is to provide outdoor light where and when it is needed while reducing costs, improving visibility, and minimizing any adverse effects on plants, animals, and humans caused through exposure to unnatural levels of light at night. (Kyba et al., 2014 Kyba, C., Hänel, A., & Hölker, F. (2014). Redefining efficiency for outdoor lighting. Energy & Environmental Science, 7, 1806–1809.10.1039/C4EE00566J[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar], p. 1807) In addition to skyglow, light trespass can impact observations when artificial light directly enters the tube of the telescope and is reflected from non-optical surfaces until it eventually reaches the eyepiece. This direct form of light pollution causes a glow across the field of view which reduces contrast. Light trespass also makes it hard for a visual observer to become sufficiently dark adapted. The usual measures to reduce this glare, if reducing the light directly is not an option, include flocking the telescope tube and accessories to reduce reflection, and putting a light shield (also usable as a dew shield) on the telescope to reduce light entering from angles other than those near the target. Under these conditions, some astronomers prefer to observe under a black cloth to ensure maximum dark adaptation. In one Italian regional lighting code this effect of stray light is defined as “optical pollution”[citation needed], due to the fact that there is a direct path from the light source to the “optic” – the observer’s eye or telescope. To report a streetlight that’s out or malfunctioning, complete the form below (*Required). A more recent discussion (2009), written by Professor Steven Lockley, Harvard Medical School, can be found in the CfDS handbook “Blinded by the Light?”.[50] Chapter 4, “Human health implications of light pollution” states that “… light intrusion, even if dim, is likely to have measurable effects on sleep disruption and melatonin suppression. Even if these effects are relatively small from night to night, continuous chronic circadian, sleep and hormonal disruption may have longer-term health risks”. The New York Academy of Sciences hosted a meeting in 2009 on Circadian Disruption and Cancer.[51] Red light suppresses melatonin the least.[52] The first three of the above four scientific definitions describe the state of the environment. The fourth (and newest) one describes the process of polluting by light. Energy consumption:Joshua Filmer of Futurism.com reported in 2013 that at least 30 percent of street lighting is wasted — light that shines up into the sky, where it does no good. “Calculations show that 22,000 gigawatt-hours a year are wasted. At $0.10 per kilowatt-hour, the cost of that wasted energy is $2.2 billion a year,” Filmer wrote. “That’s 3.6 tons of coal or 12.9 million barrels of oil wasted every year to produce this lost light.” A Harvard study shed a little bit of light on the possible connection to diabetes and possibly obesity. The researchers put 10 people on a schedule that gradually shifted the timing of their circadian rhythms. Their blood sugar levels increased, throwing them into a prediabetic state, and levels of leptin, a hormone that leaves people feeling full after a meal, went down. An alternative calculation starts with the fact that commercial building lighting consumes in excess of 81.68 terawatts (1999 data) of electricity,[19] according to the U.S. DOE. Thus commercial lighting alone consumes about four to five million barrels per day (equivalent) of petroleum, in line with the alternate rationale above to estimate U.S. lighting energy consumption. Even among developed countries there are large differences in patterns of light use. American cities emit 3–5 times more light to space per capita compared to German cities.[20] We now tried to replace those bulbs with LEDs. The first thing we noticed (when replacing one bulb), is that the LEDs intensity can’t be gradually changed by the slider. The LED is shining on full intensity or isn’t shining at all. Furthermore there were no problems in changing 15 of those bulbs into LEDs, but when we changed the 16th bulb, for some reason all LEDs start to flicker. Furthermore if we just remove the last LED, there is no light at all. Finally if we replace the last LED again by the light bulb, we noticed that all LEDs are now shining (at full intensity), while the light bulb (which isn’t broken) does only glow (and refuses to shine). You can now report a street light problem with your smartphone, so it is easier to report it from the location. Visit m.snopud.com on your smartphone and select “Report Street Light Problem.” Maria and Jason are doing the same lab as Jackson and Melanie (from the previous problem). Maria and Jason determine the distance between the central bight spot and the 4th bright spot to be 29 cm. The distance from their slide to the whiteboard (where the interference pattern is projected) is 2.76 m. The slits in their slide are also spaced 25 micrometers apart. Based on Maria and Jason’s measurements, what is the wavelength of the red laser light (in nanometers)? (GIVEN: 1 m = 106 mm, 1 m = 109 nm) Apparent problems with a ceiling light fixture are usually traced to some issue that is interrupting the flow of electricity from the wall switch to the light fixture. Diagnosing the problem will depend on whether the light bulb does not light up at all, or if it is flickering intermittently.  7. By wasted, we can assume this percentage of lighting is deemed to fall within one (or more) of the categories listed above (skyglow, glare, light trespass, or clutter). White hole cosmology is a creationist cosmology invented by creationist Russell Humphreys and put forward in his 1994 book Starlight and Time.[10] The main idea of white hole cosmology is that the world was created inside a black hole and that earth was subjected to intense time dilation so billions of years could have passed outside the field while only a few days would pass inside it. Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment. It is exacerbated by excessive, misdirected or obtrusive uses of light, but even carefully used light fundamentally alters natural conditions. As a major side-effect of urbanization, it is blamed for compromising health, disrupting ecosystems and spoiling aesthetic environments. Report any street light problems or damage. We will schedule repairs at the earliest opportunity. 7. By wasted, we can assume this percentage of lighting is deemed to fall within one (or more) of the categories listed above (skyglow, glare, light trespass, or clutter). In the night, the polarization of the moonlit sky is very strongly reduced in the presence of urban light pollution, because scattered urban light is not strongly polarized.[84] Polarized moonlight can’t be seen by humans, but is believed to be used by many animals for navigation. 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