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Approximately 50% of Council owned street lights operate on a part-night basis.  This means that about 14,000 street lights are switched off between 1am and 6am during British Summer Time and between midnight and 5am during winter. For more information and a list of frequently asked questions, visit the Part night lighting FAQ page. Sometimes it is not possible to completely get rid of the problem, as this may prevent the street light from being effective so we may need to find a compromise. A second important point is that by concentrating upon the very distant objects, the light travel time problem is not formulated properly, for the situation is far worse! Most treatments of the light travel time problem concentrate upon the question of how we can see objects more than 6,000 lt-yr away. Because most objects clearly visible to the naked eye are well within 6,000 lt-yr, they aren’t a problem in a recent creation. But while it is possible for us to see most of the naked eye stars and today, some millennia after the Creation Week, it would not have been possible for Adam to have seen any stars (other than the sun) for at least four years after his creation. The stars were made on Day Four, and Adam was made on Day Six. The nearest star after the sun is 4.3 lt-yr away, so Adam could not have seen even the closest star for more than four years, and then stars would have slowly winked in over the succeeding years. However, the stars could not have fulfilled their God ordained functions when Adam first saw them after Day Six. These functions include being used to mark seasons and the passage of time (we still do this today with the day, month, and year). The passage of the year and the seasons are reckoned by how the sun appears to move against the background stars as the earth orbits the sun. Absent these background stars, it would not be possible to determine the passage of the year and of the seasons. Therefore, to truly solve the light travel time problem, light from stars even a few light years away must have been visible only days after their creation (and it is likely that the light of all the astronomical objects reaching the earth today also reached the earth at this early time). Any realistic solution to the light travel time problem must explain how Adam could have seen any stars on the evening following Day Six. Once that issue is resolved, the light travel time problem for truly distant objects probably is solved as well. At any rate, we ought to properly formulate the light travel time problem in all discussions of this issue. Please fill out the form below if you know of a street light that needs to be repaired. Expose yourself to lots of bright light during the day, which will boost your ability to sleep at night, as well as your mood and alertness during daylight. If blue light does have adverse health effects, then environmental concerns, and the quest for energy-efficient lighting, could be at odds with personal health. Those curlicue compact fluorescent lightbulbs and LED lights are much more energy-efficient than the old-fashioned incandescent lightbulbs we grew up with. But they also tend to produce more blue light. Hi can someone help me! My flashlight won’t work.. anybody who had the same problem? Use this form to report problems with street lights, traffic lights, zebra crossings, illuminated signs or bollards. Attaching the language and connotations of pollution to nighttime lighting is effective, but may also set boundaries on possible solutions. This is a very specific answer to the question of how much light is appropriate, which comes with limitations. As a moral concept, light pollution can tell us what bad lighting is, but says relatively little about what good lighting is. Because of the focus on the (adverse) causes and effects of artificial nighttime lighting, the concept is limited in its capacity to inform choices within the realm good lighting, especially in cities where there are other values at play. Light pollution says very little about artificial nighttime illumination deemed to be within the acceptable limits of polluting, or the many values and needs strived for therein (for example, esthetics and nightlife). Thus, there are limits to the capacity of light pollution to inform moral evaluations, as it frames decisions as questions about acceptable levels of polluting. Gaslight was followed by the invention of electric lighting in the latter half of the nineteenth century—the most profound technological development in lighting, and arguably one of the most important developments of modern infrastructure. Figuratively, electric lighting became synonymous with—and symbolic of—modern progress. For a Russian poet visiting New York City in the 1920s, the bright electric lights were perceived as modernity’s very medium (Isenstadt, 2014 Isenstadt, S. (2014). Good night. Places Journal. Retrieved 22 October, 2014, from[Crossref] [Google Scholar]). Aided by various technical advances, for example, floodlights, electric lighting quickly became a ‘sophisticated cultural apparatus’ that could be used for advertising, commemorating history, expressing civic pride, highlighting monuments, etc. (Nye, 1990 Nye, D. E. (1990). Electrifying America: Social meanings of a new technology, 1880–1940. Cambridge: MIT Press. [Google Scholar], p. 73). Via electrification, artificial nighttime lighting became, and remains, a prolific technological artifact capable of esthetic and ideological expression well beyond functional requirements.44. Neumann’s’ Architecture of the Night (2002a Neumann, D. (Ed.). (2002a). Architecture of the night: The illuminated building. New York, NY: Prestel. [Google Scholar]) is arguably the most important recent study of nighttime illumination in architectural history and theory, linking the history of nighttime lighting with the history of modern architecture. Neumann mainly focuses on the esthetic and expressive qualities of ‘illuminated buildings’ throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, providing the first comprehensive catalogue of relevant architectural projects.View all notes I’m trying to explain some LED-lighting phenomena, that we (me and my family) have observed, while changing light bulbs into LEDs. I’ve had some courses in semiconductor physics, and I’ve had a basic course in electronics, but I still have some difficulties in explaining these phenomena. Research is also examining the effects on flora and fauna, especially birds, bats, turtles, and insects. While a few species benefit from increased brightness at night, many are negatively affected. Perhaps most notable are the effects of artificial light on migrating birds and newly hatched turtles attempting to reach the ocean (Gallaway, 2010 Gallaway, T. (2010). On light pollution, passive pleasures, and the instrumental value of beauty. Journal of Economic Issues, 44, 71–88.10.2753/JEI0021-3624440104[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]; Pottharst & Könecke, 2013 Pottharst, M., & Könecke, B. (2013). The night and its Loss. In Space-time design of the public city, urban and landscape perspectives (Vol. 15, pp. 37–48). Dordrecht: Springer.10.1007/978-94-007-6425-5[Crossref] [Google Scholar]). The effects of artificial lighting on human health first emerged in the late 1960s, but have gained more attention by medical researchers in the last few decades. Pottharst and Könecke (2013 Pottharst, M., & Könecke, B. (2013). The night and its Loss. In Space-time design of the public city, urban and landscape perspectives (Vol. 15, pp. 37–48). Dordrecht: Springer.10.1007/978-94-007-6425-5[Crossref] [Google Scholar]) summarize ongoing research correlating nighttime lighting—and more specifically disruptions to our circadian rhythm—to insomnia, depression, obesity, loss of night-vision, and the suppression of melatonin (which is potentially linked to an increased risk of breast cancer). While the precise connection between human well-being and exposure to artificial nighttime lighting requires further research, the World Health Organization has nevertheless stated that exposure to certain lights at night is likely a carcinogen (Morgan-Taylor, 2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). power up premium vigrx erogan Testo Ultra BioBelt power up premium Maxman Testo Ultra Testogen Masculin Active