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Tell us about problems with street lights, pedestrian crossings or illuminated bollards: We’re converting many of our street lights to energy-efficient Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology. Read more about our LED street lighting project. Download and complete the attachment to street light application form (PDF, 339.5 KB). Sometimes it is not possible to completely get rid of the problem, as this may prevent the street light from being effective so we may need to find a compromise. This paper has critically engaged with the concept of light pollution and identified areas that require further clarification. The limitation of light pollution as a criterion for the moral evaluation of artificial nighttime lighting was discussed, concluding that it can best function in the limited capacity of mitigation or preservation efforts. This led to practical concerns, specifically the ambiguity of thresholds for acceptable levels of light pollution, and the mechanisms that could be used to establish said thresholds. The intention was to highlight conceptual and practical issues that, if addressed, can help to strengthen future regulatory efforts in urban nighttime lighting. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate light pollution as a normative concept, and focus specifically on its increasing role in shaping, or framing, future regulatory efforts, and decision-making processes. The goal is not to condemn or approve of the use of light pollution from an ethical perspective, nor is it to arrive at definitive answers for the ambiguities inherent in the concept. Rather, I begin by accepting the term as the dominant concept for describing a novel environmental problem, and critically reflect on its ethical significance and potential limitations. While the implications of light pollution are far-reaching, here I will focus specifically on light pollution as it relates to urban nighttime lighting. Such an analysis can be seen as an example of an issue discussed within this journal by Elliott (2009 Elliott, K. (2009). The ethical significance of language in the environmental sciences: Case studies from pollution research. Ethics, Place & Environment, 12, 157–173.10.1080/13668790902863382[Taylor & Francis Online] [Google Scholar]), namely the ethical significance of language and terminology choices for framing environmental policy decisions and debates. While Elliott discusses very different types of pollution, the themes highlighted are quite relevant for an examination of light pollution. Elliott—who draws from a more pragmatic branch of environmental ethics that I adopt here—describes the usefulness of practical ethics for policy discussions. Philosophers can help to create and define the moral space within which policy decisions will be made, and so can contribute to upstream policy decisions. Elliot (2009 Elliott, K. (2009). The ethical significance of language in the environmental sciences: Case studies from pollution research. Ethics, Place & Environment, 12, 157–173.10.1080/13668790902863382[Taylor & Francis Online] [Google Scholar], p. 170) explains that, The third solution is not much discussed anymore. It relied upon some speculative hypothesis about the nature of light that has never been demonstrated. Very few creationists embraced this solution anyway, and those who once did mention this solution normally offered it as a hypothetical possibility not necessarily with endorsement. For a critical discussion of this theory, please see Akridge (1984). Disputes are still common when deciding appropriate action; and differences in opinion over what light is considered reasonable, and who should be responsible, mean that negotiation must sometimes take place between parties. Where objective measurement is desired, light levels can be quantified by field measurement or mathematical modeling, with results typically displayed as an isophote map or light contour map. Authorities have also taken a variety of measures for dealing with light pollution, depending on the interests, beliefs and understandings of the society involved.[citation needed] Measures range from doing nothing at all, to implementing strict laws and regulations about how lights may be installed and used. Kyba et al. (2014 Kyba, C., Hänel, A., & Hölker, F. (2014). Redefining efficiency for outdoor lighting. Energy & Environmental Science, 7, 1806–1809.10.1039/C4EE00566J[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]) mention the tricky issue of ‘shifting baseline syndrome’. As nights get brighter, people have a new conception of what ‘normal’ levels of light are, and base their evaluations of acceptable levels of brightness on this. A focus on needs could help to overcome shifting baselines. But, such an approach risks omitting the preferences of local stakeholders, and as such may create technocratic and paternalistic policies. This may contribute to downstream value-level conflicts when regulations are enacted. For example, safety is a central facet of nighttime lighting and an important value intertwined with urban nightscapes. While the correlation between increased lighting and increased safety is contentious, research suggests that lighting influences feelings and perceptions of safety (King, 2010 King, C. (2010). Field surveys of the effect of lamp spectrum on the perception of safety and comfort and night. Lighting Research & Technology, 42, 313–329.[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]), and that feelings of fear increase at night (Li et al., 2015 Li, Y., Ma, W., Kang, Q., Qiao, L., Tang, D., Qiu, J., … Li, H. (2015). Night or darkness, which intensifies the feeling of fear? International Journal of Psychophysiology, 97, 46–57.10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.04.021[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Such findings represent a challenge for needs-based nighttime lighting efforts. Attention to the preferences of local stakeholders becomes critical to the creation of regulations that will be supported and successful. The frame creation model discussed above (Dorst, 2015 Dorst, K. (2015). Frame innovation: Create new thinking by design. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [Google Scholar]) is but one approach that incorporates the values and desires of stakeholders; a variety of other participatory or value-focused design strategies could also be effectively utilized to address conflicts of this nature. Use dimmer switches on household lights or use candles. At night, use dimmer switches in your home to reduce unnecessary lighting, or try using candles if you want to reduce your light pollution even further, and to encourage your own body’s winding down for the night. You might find that you like the effects, and appreciate the increased restful sleep of your entire family! Also, if possible, consider eliminating your use of electronics a couple of hours before you go to bed to eliminate the blue light that such devices often emanate that may negatively impact your body’s own melatonin production. Nicholas Nickleby was a campaigning novel highlighting the brutality of these schools to an ignorant or compliant society, which ultimately resulted in the schools’ demise. Today, Dotheboys Hall is filled with children being children, innocent fun and mischief, blissfully ignorant of Dotheboys’ past. The parallels between Nicholas Nickleby and modern-day campaigning journalism should not be lost. Sean Webb Dotheboys Hall Bowes, Co Durham Faulkner, D. R. 2013. Astronomical distance determination methods and the light travel time problem. Answers Research Journal 6:211–229. Retrieved from http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/arj/v6/n1/astronomical-distance-light-travel-problem. The lights that we own have a code (such as ‘ABCD123’) on the side of the column which is used to identify the light. The code is similar to a house postcode and tells us where the light is located when faults are reported. The relationship between safety and lighting at night is complex at best, and often controversial. Historical surveys into the origins of public nighttime lighting (e.g. Ekirch, 2005 Ekirch, R. A. (2005). At day’s close: Night in times past. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. [Google Scholar]) describe the storied relationship between the value of safety and lighting efforts. Lighting served the practical function of making nighttime travel safer, but also the symbolic function of protection from the evils of the night (spirits, demons, etc.). In contemporary discourse, the exact relationship between safety and security and nighttime lighting remains contentious, with various studies proving or disproving a correlation (Pottharst & Könecke, 2013 Pottharst, M., & Könecke, B. (2013). The night and its Loss. In Space-time design of the public city, urban and landscape perspectives (Vol. 15, pp. 37–48). Dordrecht: Springer.10.1007/978-94-007-6425-5[Crossref] [Google Scholar]). It is outside the scope of this paper to comment on these studies in detail, but it is important to note that advocates for mitigating light pollution often cite the possibility that less (or more wisely designed) lighting may improve safety and reduce crime (e.g. Bogard, 2013 Bogard, P. (2013). The end of night: Searching for natural darkness in an age of artificial light. New York, NY: Back Bay Books. [Google Scholar]; Henderson, 2010 Henderson, D. (2010). Valuing the stars: On the economics of light pollution. Environmental Philosophy, 7, 17–26.10.5840/envirophil2010712[Crossref] [Google Scholar]). erogran BeMass VigRX Plus Erozon Max eracto Maca du Pérou VigRX Erozon Max Maxman Maca peruana

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