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A change in the speed of light would quite literally end the world as we know it. The speed of light is not an arbitrary speed with no effect on outside systems, but is in fact a component in one of the most fundamental equations in the universe[6], the equation for matter: E = mc2 where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light in a vacuum.[7] This means that any increase of the speed of light would in turn increase the amount of energy released by the reactions of matter. Because the Sun, or indeed any star, relies on the reactions of matter, most notably nuclear fusion, a change in the speed of light would alter its energy output; if light were traveling as fast as some creationists demand, then the energy output of the Sun could be expected to increase over 800,000,000 times.[8][9] Use the street light outage application to report street light outages. The application allows you to select a street light on a map to report lights out, lights flickering, and lights that are burning during the day. That light can cause pollution is a new idea for most people, and many may think it is not really very important except to astronomers. But light pollution interferes with living systems in many ways, causing, for example, sea turtles to lose their way to the sea, migrating birds to become confused and strike buildings, and plant seasonal cycles to be disturbed. It also affects human hormone cycles and our day-and-night cycles of sleep and wakefulness. Using light carelessly wastes energy, resources used to make the energy, and interferes with everyone’s visibility not only of stars but also of things on the ground that we need to see. With this definition and sub-categorization, the use of light pollution as a framework for evaluating artificial nighttime lighting begins to come into focus. The undesired outputs of artificial nighttime lighting—be it any of the four broad types listed above—can then be considered in terms of effects. The consequences of light pollution are far reaching, and supporting research is often still at an early stage. However, the effects can likewise be subdivided into five broad categories: energy usage, ecology, health, safety, and the night sky. The past few decades have seen the first large-scale investigations of energy usage by artificial nighttime lighting, as well as its connection to economic costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The International Dark-Sky Association estimates that 22% of all energy in the USA is used for lighting, and of that around 8% is used for outdoor nighttime lighting (IDA, 2014 IDA. (2014). International Dark-Sky Association. International Dark-Sky Association. Retrieved 15 January, 2015, from [Google Scholar]). Another recent study concluded that this number is closer to 6% (Gallaway, Olsen, & Mitchell, 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Such studies often focus not just on the amount of energy used for lighting, but specifically the amount of wasted light. A consistent estimate is that approximately 30% of outdoor lighting in the United States is wasted (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]; Henderson, 2010 Henderson, D. (2010). Valuing the stars: On the economics of light pollution. Environmental Philosophy, 7, 17–26.10.5840/envirophil2010712[Crossref] [Google Scholar]).77. By wasted, we can assume this percentage of lighting is deemed to fall within one (or more) of the categories listed above (skyglow, glare, light trespass, or clutter).View all notes This translates into roughly 73 million megawatt hours of ‘needlessly generated’ electricty, with an estimated annual cost of US$6.9 billion. Elimating this wasted light, in terms of CO2 reduction, is equivalent to removing 9.5 million cars from the road (Gallaway et al., 2010 Gallaway, T., Olsen, R., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The economics of global light pollution. Ecological Economics, 69, 658–665.10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.10.003[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]). Similar estimates of wasted light in the European Union have predicted that the direct costs amount to €5.2 billion, or 23.5 billion kg of CO2 annually (Morgan-Taylor, 2014 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2014). Regulating light pollution in Europe: Legal challenges and ways forward. In J. Meier, U. Hasenöhrl, K. Krause, & M. Pottharst (Eds.), Urban lighting, light pollution and society (pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. [Google Scholar]). Download and complete the attachment to street light application form (PDF, 339.5 KB). Report a problem with a street light The problem with the last bulb is this; the dimmer switch itself needs to see a suitable load. i.e. it is happy working into a standard filament bulb. It’s driving all your lights in parallel, so whilst there is one regular bulb in there the dimmer is still happy. At the point you replace that last bulb with an LED lamp, the dimmer now sees only LED electronics as its load. The dimmer will not function properly (due to the way it works, it won’t fire correct) and the result is it sends occasional pulses to the lights in its confusion and you observe the flickering. Light fixtures that are poorly designed waste light by letting it shine upward or to the side, dramatically and unnecessarily increasing sky glow, light trespass, and glare. These fixtures are everywhere, at homes and businesses, and even in Flagstaff, which is more careful than most communities. Report any street light problems or damage. We will schedule repairs at the earliest opportunity. Otóż mam mały problem z działaniem gry. Ogólnie wszystko “działa” (pomijając fakt że musze niestety grać na średnich lub niskich ustawieniach z powodu małej ilości fps) lecz niestety gra po jakiś 15 minutach po prostu się crashuje. Dlaczego? Niewiem. Podejrzewam że możę to być sama wina komputera (gdy gram w dying light wydajność jest powyżej 50%). Podaje specyfikacje kompa: -karta graficzna – GTX 650 ti -procesor – AMD FX(tm) – 6300 Six- Core Porcessor -RAM – 8 Gb -64- bitowy system operacyjny Windows 7 Proszę o pomoc ! This light is switched off for energy saving. We own and look after most of the street lights in Kent. Parish and district councils own and look after some and some are privately owned. Lisle, J. 2010. Anisotropic synchrony convention—A solution to the distant starlight problem. Answers Research Journal 3:191–207. Retrieved from 3) When just removing the 16th bulb, there is no light at all. Dear sir , Mera mobile vivo y21l hai. Island light section me diode JAL ,gaya hai . Kaise thik kare Light pollution is a topic gaining importance and acceptance in environmental discourse. This concept provides a framework for categorizing the adverse effects of nighttime lighting, which advocacy groups and regulatory efforts are increasingly utilizing. However, the ethical significance of the concept has, thus far, received little critical reflection. In this paper, I analyze the moral implications of framing issues in nighttime lighting via the concept of light pollution. First, the moral and political importance of problem framing is discussed. Next, the origins and contemporary understandings of light pollution are presented. Finally, the normative limitations and practical ambiguities of light pollution are discussed, with the aim of strengthening the framework through which decisions about urban nighttime lighting strategies are increasingly approached. The use of full cutoff fixtures help to reduce sky glow by preventing light from escaping above the horizontal. Full cutoff typically reduces the visibility of the lamp and reflector within a luminaire, so the effects of glare are also reduced. Campaigners also commonly argue that full cutoff fixtures are more efficient than other fixtures, since light that would otherwise have escaped into the atmosphere may instead be directed towards the ground. However, full cutoff fixtures may also trap more light in the fixture than other types of luminaires, corresponding to lower luminaire efficiency, suggesting a re-design of some luminaires may be necessary. 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